The integration of our scientific knowledge at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels is critical to impacting disease in humans. As our insight into molecular and cellular processes has grown, emphasis in many Ph.D. training programs has shifted away from integrated (whole animal or systems) biology. The lack of an available scientific workforce with an understanding of integrated biology, including drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, and an appreciation of the unique challenges of converting discoveries into therapies will delay the application of these discoveries at the molecular and cellular levels to human disease. Scientists trained in the discipline of Pharmacology form an important part of this necessary workforce. This meeting addresses critical issues related to training Pharmacologists and has been planned in response to a perceived and real decline in training programs. The goals of this meeting are to identify common problems and opportunities that face Ph.D. training programs in Pharmacology and to discuss how best to meet them. The target audience for this meeting is Directors of Graduate Training Programs in Pharmacology. This meeting will provide a unique opportunity for these scientists to exchange information and to interact with leaders in industry, government, and academia who help shape this discipline. A continuing dialogue among Directors of training programs and other scientists with an interest in training is identified as a desired major outcome. ? ? ?