Case-control studies of cancers of the bladder, kidney, prostate, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, lung, brain, and head and neck, as well as non-Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myeloma, are in progress. Two large case-control studies of kidney cancer are ongoing in the United States and in Eastern Europe to identify risk factors for kidney cancer. Results from the U.S. study suggest that a family history of kidney cancer is associated with a doubling of kidney cancer risk. These findings were similar in Caucasians and African Americans. In contrast, chronic hepatitis C virus infection was not related to kidney cancer risk in the Swedish population. In a cohort study of Chinese women, family history of colorectal cancer was associated with a tripling of colorectal cancer risk. In a pooled analysis of data from 10 case-control studies and two cohort studies, cigarette smoking was associated with increased risks of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in white men and women. Moreover, smoking cessation was shown to be associated with reduced risks of these sites. In a case-control study of gallbladder cancer in Shanghai, high parity, younger age at first birth, and late age at menarche were associated with increased risk, particularly among women with biliary stones. In addition, among participants who smoked and drank alcohol, a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers was associated with an excess of gallbladder cancer, supporting a role for inflammation in the etiology of gallbladder cancer. In a pooled analysis of data from eight case-control studies, sexual behaviors were associated with risk of cancer of the head and neck subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection. In a second pooled analysis of 13 case-control studies, cessation of tobacco smoking and cessation of alcohol drinking appeared to reduce risk of head and neck cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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