The proposed study will target Focus area I by examining preschooler's acquisition of the emergent literacy skills that provide the foundation for skilled reading in elementary school. Children from low-income backgrounds and families in which Standard English is not their first language face particularly high hurdles as they transition into early reading instruction. Moreover, teachers' understanding of the developmental processes involved in learning to read are critical for successful implementation of literacy curricula and successful use of formative assessment to tailor instructional strategies to children. Following on these needs this project will provide teachers with state of the art research based knowledge about how emergent literacy skills are directly linked to, and form the foundation for, skilled reading in the elementary school. Additionally, the project will provide important data on the validity of assessment procedures used to inform curricula.