The proposed studies will examine barriers to attention to HIV-relevant information by high-risk people. The application is organized around a model that predicts when potential participations may be more likely to attend to HIV-relevant information. In particular, the model specifies that type of information available (HIV- relevant information versus control health information) and group delivery context (larger versus smaller) will interact such that attention will be lowest when HIV-relevant information is presented in a larger group delivery context. In addition, the model outlines the reasons for this proposed relation as participants'anticipated stigma, shame, and fear of being stigmatized as a result of paying attention to materials. Furthermore, the proposed studies will test the hypothesis that members of traditionally stigmatized groups (e.g., ethnic minorities, the obese, and those with non-normative grooming or hygiene) may be more aware of the potential for stigma in these situations and, as such, may be even less likely to attend to HIV-relevant information in a larger group delivery context. The present proposal outlines two studies to test these hypotheses. The first is a field study at the Champaign-Urbana Public Health Department that will utilize unobtrusive observation to measure attention and retrospective self-report to measure anticipated stigma, shame, and fear of being stigmatized. In this study, participants will be unaware that their public behavior is being observed while they have the opportunity to read brochures and videos (either HIV-relevant or control health-relevant). After the opportunity to attend to materials, participants will be approached and asked to retrospectively self-report anticipated stigma, shame, and fear of being stigmatized. The second proposed study will utilize psychophysiological measures (specifically Event Related Potentials) and prospective self-report to test the paths specified in the model.
A critical problem identified by previous research is that high-risk participants are often less likely to enroll in HIV-prevention efforts. As such, this proposal will address potential barriers to enrollment by target audiences as a way of increasing attention to HIV-prevention efforts. Furthermore, this application provides a critical first step toward the overall goal of improving public health by information dissemination.
|Earl, Allison; Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais et al. (2016) Disparities in attention to HIV-prevention information. AIDS Care 28:79-86|