RATIONALE: Acute coronary syndrome, including acute myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization for veterans. Recent advances in the treatment of acute MI have led to declines in hospital mortality. Despite this, the risk of recurrent events and mortality after the index MI hospitalization remains substantial in the following year. Non-adherence to proven cardioprotective medications is a potentially modifiable risk factor that contributes to the persistently high risk of adverse outcomes following MI hospitalization. Prior interventions to improve medication adherence in cardiovascular populations have produced mixed results and have not specifically targeted patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospital discharge. It is currently unknown if interventions targeting medication non-adherence in the year after ACS discharge will improve medication adherence and intermediate outcomes or will be cost- effective OBJECTIVE(S): We propose to test the effectiveness of a multi-faceted patient-centered adherence intervention among veterans following ACS hospitalization to improve adherence to cardioprotective medications (primary aim). Secondary aims will assess whether the intervention improves achievement of secondary prevention blood pressure (BP) and LDL- cholesterol goals, reduces cardiac endpoints (MI hospitalization, coronary revascularization, all- cause mortality) and is cost-effective. METHODS: We propose a 3-year, multi-site patient-level randomized controlled trial to evaluate, relative to usual care, a multi-faceted patient-centered intervention to improve adherence to cardioprotective medication among veterans following ACS hospital discharge. The study will enroll 280 patients to intervention versus usual care for 12-months at 3 VA Medical Centers (Eastern Colorado, Puget Sound, and Central Arkansas). The proposed intervention will be based on several conceptual frameworks (Chronic Care Model and Medication Adherence Model) and adapt elements of prior successfully adherence interventions, including: collaborative care, patient education, tailoring of medication regimens, and tele-monitoring. The primary analyses will be a comparison of adherence to cardioprotective medications using pharmacy refill records based on the ReCOMP adherence measure developed in the VA. Secondary analyses will compare achievement of secondary prevention BP and LDL goals and cardiac events. In addition, cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. All analyses will be intention to treat
ANTICIPATED IMPACT(S) ON VETERAN'S HEALTHCARE: If successful, the proposed intervention will increase adherence to cardioprotective medications (i.e., ?-blockers, statins, clopidogrel, and ACE inhibitors) by helping veterans take their medications routinely as prescribed, the quality of cardiovascular care for veterans by helping patients achieve BP and LDL goals which have been associated with improved outcomes, and the efficiency of care by using telephone calls and tele-monitoring for communication with patients rather than clinic visits. The findings of the study will address an important gap in knowledge (i.e., how to improve adherence to medications following ACS discharge) and will be generalizable to other VA Medical Centers and veterans.