Anticipated Impacts on Veteran's Healthcare: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the U.S.; more than 80% of veterans have > 2 risk factors for CVD. An intervention that addresses multiple CVD risk factors among high-risk veterans has the greatest potential to improve morbidity and mortality. Project Background/Rationale: The proposed study will take place in two VA primary care clinics (1- CBOC and 1-primary care clinic affiliated with a hospital). We will improve CVD risk among veterans by addressing the modifiable risk factors of systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The intervention will be tailored to the needs of vulnerable high risk patients (e.g. African Americans, low literate) and integrated into clinics, thereby enhancing the potential for benefit and generalizability to other settings. The proposed study could significantly improve CVD risk management among veterans for several reasons: 1) This intervention is a novel extension of our previous efficacious interventions, but provides a novel extension to address multiple chronic conditions contributing to CVD risk. 2) The intervention focuses on both multiple CVD-related behaviors and medication management. 3) The intervention was developed to ensure implementation across a large and representative sample of veterans; and; 4) The intervention, if found efficacious and financially self-sustaining, could be widely implemented within the VA healthcare system. Project Objectives: The proposed study will examine two research questions: 1. Can patients randomized to a clinical pharmacist-administered telephone behavioral/medication management intervention tailored to their needs improve CVD outcomes relative to a control group over 12 months? Primary Hypothesis: (H1) Veterans who receive the behavioral/medication intervention will have greater improvement of their CVD Risk Profile over the 12 months of follow-up as compared to the control group. Secondary Hypotheses: (H2) Veterans who receive the intervention will have improved medication adherence, physical activity, improved diet, lower body mass index as compared to the control group over 12 months of follow-up. (H3) Veterans who receive the intervention will have greater improvements in LDL over the 12 months of follow-up as compared to the control group. (H4) Veterans with diabetes who receive the intervention will have greater improved HbA1c as compared to the control group over 12 months of follow-up. 2. If the intervention is found to be effective, is it cost effective? Project Methods: To address these hypotheses, we propose a two-arm randomized clinical trial design in which 500 patients with cardiovascular disease will be randomized to either the education control group or the intervention group. Patients randomized to the intervention group will receive a clinical pharmacist-administered intervention, which focuses on behavioral and a medication management. The intervention will occur over 12 months. Patients randomized to the control group will receive educational material about CVD reduction. Given the national prevalence of CVD and the dismal rates of risk factor control, intensive, but easily disseminated interventions such as the one proposed could significantly improve treatment of this epidemic in the VA.
. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States;more than 80% of veterans have >2 risk factors for CVD. Our study is one of the first to examine the implementation of a tailored behavioral/educational self- management intervention in primary care clinics designed to improve CVD risk. The proposed study could result in a leap forward in CVD risk management among veterans for several reasons: 1) ) This is a novel extension of our previous interventions that have demonstrated improved BP, now designed to address multiple chronic conditions contributing to CVD risk, particularly hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The study focuses on both multiple CVD-related risk factor management and medication management 2) The intervention is multi-behavioral;it addresses patients'various health behavior (e.g., smoking, diet, and medication adherence). 3) Components of the intervention will include specific recommendations and transportability of intervention application software and tracking packages that will allow clinic managers to implement the intervention if it is effective.