Implementation science examines the efficiency of intervention implementation and to translate the existing efficacious intervention models to real world services. It could potentially enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of the behavioral intervention projects. I received my PhD in epidemiology from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 2009. Through my involvement in several large-scale HIV behavioral intervention projects and my doctoral dissertation study, I realized the importance of implementation science in intervention delivery and determined long-term career goal to become an implementation science researcher to bridge the gap between existing knowledge and service delivery. To fill in the gap between my current skill set and the career goal, I will receive training in areas related to implementation science, including health policy, intervention adaptation, and healthcare management. The health policy training will familiarize me with the process of policy development and its influence on the intervention adaptation and implementation;the intervention adaptation courses will inform me with the general concept and framework to design the study ensuring all aspects of intervention implementation are addressed;and the health management training will provide me with analytical tools to model leadership decision making and to evaluate the implementation flow in healthcare settings. The mentor team members, Drs. Li Li, Mary-Jane Rotheram-Borus, Thomas J. Coates and Zunyou Wu, are all internationally reorganized experts in behavioral intervention implementation and adaptation. My institute, the UCLA Semel Center for Community Health (CCH) and the Center for HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services (CHIPTS), UCLA, provide me with support from a multidisciplinary team of top researchers. Collaborating with the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS), China CDC, I will conduct a mentored research using an intervention trial with significant yet heterogeneous outcome to investigate multilevel factors influencing the intervention implementation and outcome, and to find the optimal approach to incorporate the intervention model into the current healthcare settings. The study will be conducted in three phases. Phase 1 will be review of related policies and in-depth interviews with healthcare administrators and hospital directors, with the aim to explore the policy barriers and facilitators in adaptation of the intervention model. Phase 2 will be conjoint analysis with hospital directors to model the decision-making in intervention adaptation and routinization in the healthcare facilities. Phase 3 will be bottleneck analysis to locate structure bottlenecks in compliance with the intervention component. The finding will provide implications for future intervention delivery in healthcare settings. Application of some analytical tools in other fields, including conjoint analysis and bottleneck analysis, will potentially contribute to te development of implementation science methodology. Based on the data achieved from the study, I will prepare for a R01 application in implementation science in Year 4 of the K award period.
The research will use an intervention trial with significant yet heterogeneous outcome to identify multilevel factors influencing the intervention implementation and delivery in healthcare settings. The findings will provide insights into the knowledge translation strategies to maximize the benefits of research within the practice settings. It will aso provide recommendations on the structural change that will lead to the highest productivity increase.