The goal of this career development award is for Dr. Philip A. Chan to acquire the training and experience necessary to become an independent clinical investigator. The career goals of this proposal are to gain expertise in the field of HIV-oriented molecular epidemiology including familiarity with biostatistics and study design, to become skilled using molecular phylogenetics to study HIV transmission patterns and population dynamics, to acquire experience in HIV behavior and prevention sciences, and to receive proper training in the Responsible Conduct of Research including ethical practices. The number of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals continues to increase in the United States, propagated by transmission in social networks among high-risk groups. Identification of networks within which HIV transmission occurs can lead to targeted screening and effective prevention interventions. Current HIV epidemiologic contact tracing programs implemented by public health departments are often limited by reporting and recall bias secondary to the lag time between infection and diagnosis as well as the reluctance of HIV-infected individuals to report partners. This research proposal integrates molecular epidemiology and public health programs to identify transmission networks and develop behavior assessment and intervention tools. In collaboration with other major academic centers in Rhode Island and the Department of Health, molecular epidemiology will be used to enhance contact tracing programs and develop future targeted prevention strategies. The objectives of the research are to: 1) Identify transmission networks among HIV- infected individuals using molecular phylogenetic approaches;2) Determine risk factors and characteristics associated with transmission networks that may be targeted for interventions;and 3) Identify contacts of individuals forming transmission networks to diagnose HIV-infected yet unaware cases, characterize risk behaviors, and assess acceptability of novel prevention interventions. This research will allow a comprehensive investigation of HIV epidemiology and development of an effective public health model that can be implemented elsewhere. During the course of this award, Dr. Chan will be mentored by experts from Brown University in the field of molecular genetics and HIV epidemiology including Dr. Rami Kantor (primary mentor) and Dr. Kenneth Mayer.

Public Health Relevance

(provided by the applicant): The HIV epidemic continues to affect high-risk individuals in the United States including men who have sex with men (MSM), African Americans, and other disadvantaged groups. The goal of this project is to use molecular epidemiology to investigate the transmission of HIV among these groups. By identifying risk factors associated with HIV transmission, appropriate interventions can be implemented in the future to halt the spread of infection.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee (AIDS)
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Mathias, Cherlynn
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Miriam Hospital
United States
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Chan, Philip A; Flanigan, Timothy P (2017) Effective HIV Prevention Interventions and the Need for Rapid Mobilization to Address HIV Outbreaks Among At-Risk Populations. J Infect Dis 215:1491-1492
Nunn, Amy; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer et al. (2017) Latent class analysis of acceptability and willingness to pay for self-HIV testing in a United States urban neighbourhood with high rates of HIV infection. J Int AIDS Soc 20:21290
Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy S et al. (2017) Insurance Coverage and Utilization at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in a Medicaid Expansion State. Sex Transm Dis 44:313-317
Patel, Rupa R; Chan, Philip A; Mena, Leandro et al. (2017) Time to Make the Jump: Translating HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Research Into Real-World Public Health Impact. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 75:e144-e146
Wray, Tyler; Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik et al. (2017) eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 5:e62
Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nunn, Amy S; Montgomery, Madeline et al. (2017) Behavioral Changes Following Uptake of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Clinical Setting. AIDS Behav :
Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline et al. (2016) Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2016:5758387
Vigneswaran, Hari T; Baird, Grayson; Hwang, Kathleen et al. (2016) Etiology of symptomatic urethritis in men and association with sexual behaviors. R I Med J (2013) 99:37-40
Chan, Philip A; Glynn, Tiffany R; Oldenburg, Catherine E et al. (2016) Implementation of Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex With Men at a New England Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic. Sex Transm Dis 43:717-723
Montgomery, Madeline C; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nunn, Amy S et al. (2016) Adherence to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in a Clinical Setting. PLoS One 11:e0157742

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