The goal of this career development award is for Dr. Philip A. Chan to acquire the training and experience necessary to become an independent clinical investigator. The career goals of this proposal are to gain expertise in the field of HIV-oriented molecular epidemiology including familiarity with biostatistics and study design, to become skilled using molecular phylogenetics to study HIV transmission patterns and population dynamics, to acquire experience in HIV behavior and prevention sciences, and to receive proper training in the Responsible Conduct of Research including ethical practices. The number of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals continues to increase in the United States, propagated by transmission in social networks among high-risk groups. Identification of networks within which HIV transmission occurs can lead to targeted screening and effective prevention interventions. Current HIV epidemiologic contact tracing programs implemented by public health departments are often limited by reporting and recall bias secondary to the lag time between infection and diagnosis as well as the reluctance of HIV-infected individuals to report partners. This research proposal integrates molecular epidemiology and public health programs to identify transmission networks and develop behavior assessment and intervention tools. In collaboration with other major academic centers in Rhode Island and the Department of Health, molecular epidemiology will be used to enhance contact tracing programs and develop future targeted prevention strategies. The objectives of the research are to: 1) Identify transmission networks among HIV- infected individuals using molecular phylogenetic approaches;2) Determine risk factors and characteristics associated with transmission networks that may be targeted for interventions;and 3) Identify contacts of individuals forming transmission networks to diagnose HIV-infected yet unaware cases, characterize risk behaviors, and assess acceptability of novel prevention interventions. This research will allow a comprehensive investigation of HIV epidemiology and development of an effective public health model that can be implemented elsewhere. During the course of this award, Dr. Chan will be mentored by experts from Brown University in the field of molecular genetics and HIV epidemiology including Dr. Rami Kantor (primary mentor) and Dr. Kenneth Mayer.

Public Health Relevance

(provided by the applicant): The HIV epidemic continues to affect high-risk individuals in the United States including men who have sex with men (MSM), African Americans, and other disadvantaged groups. The goal of this project is to use molecular epidemiology to investigate the transmission of HIV among these groups. By identifying risk factors associated with HIV transmission, appropriate interventions can be implemented in the future to halt the spread of infection.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Review Committee (AIDS)
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Mathias, Cherlynn
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Miriam Hospital
United States
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Chan, Philip A; Montgomery, Madeline C; Rose, Jennifer et al. (2018) Statewide Evaluation of New HIV Diagnoses in Rhode Island: Implications for Prevention. Public Health Rep 133:489-496
Patel, Rupa R; Luke, Douglas A; Proctor, Enola K et al. (2018) Sex Venue-Based Network Analysis to Identify HIV Prevention Dissemination Targets for Men Who Have Sex with Men. LGBT Health 5:78-85
Nunn, Amy; Parker, Sharon; McCoy, Katryna et al. (2018) African American Clergy Perspectives About the HIV Care Continuum: Results From a Qualitative Study in Jackson, Mississippi. Ethn Dis 28:85-92
Patel, Rupa R; Presti, Rachel; Harrison, Laura C et al. (2018) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in women with osteoporosis: a case report and review of the literature. Antivir Ther 23:379-382
Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nunn, Amy S; Montgomery, Madeline et al. (2018) Behavioral Changes Following Uptake of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Clinical Setting. AIDS Behav 22:1075-1079
Chan, Philip A; Crowley, Christina; Rose, Jennifer S et al. (2018) A Network Analysis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Online Hookup Sites Among Men Who Have Sex With Men. Sex Transm Dis 45:462-468
Patel, Rupa R; Chan, Philip A; Mena, Leandro et al. (2017) Time to Make the Jump: Translating HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Research Into Real-World Public Health Impact. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 75:e144-e146
Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy S et al. (2017) Insurance Coverage and Utilization at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in a Medicaid Expansion State. Sex Transm Dis 44:313-317
Nunn, Amy S; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Oldenburg, Catherine E et al. (2017) Defining the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum. AIDS 31:731-734
Nunn, Amy; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer et al. (2017) Latent class analysis of acceptability and willingness to pay for self-HIV testing in a United States urban neighbourhood with high rates of HIV infection. J Int AIDS Soc 20:21290

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