The goal of this proposal is to provide the applicant a pathway to independence as a clinical investigator and expert in the field of pain in sickle cell disease (SCD). Pain causes significant morbidity for patients with SCD and currently there is a gap in knowledge in the understanding of SCD pain. This knowledge gap has hindered the development of new treatments for SCD pain. Thus, the overarching career goals of the applicant are to begin to close this knowledge gap by dedicating her career to the study of SCD pain. The applicant strives to become an expert in SCD pain and to develop and apply novel interventions for SCD pain management and/or prevention. She will begin to achieve these goals by performing patient-oriented research focused on SCD pain and engaging in career development activities focused on training in pain from clinical, biological, and research perspectives. Specifically, she will require additional training in the fundamental concepts of pain neurobiology, methodology of pain research, and further training in the management of both acute and chronic pain. Her career development plan is specifically tailored to her training needs in pediatric pain and will be guided by mentors and a scientific advisory committee at the Medical College of Wisconsin. The training plan takes advantage of training opportunities at the Medical College of Wisconsin and will also take advantage of opportunities outside of the institution to supplement her on-site pain training. The research activities will include investigation into the underlying neurobiology of SCD pain by exploration into mechanisms of peripheral sensitization and its contribution to SCD pain. Peripheral sensitization occurs when damage to or change in peripheral nerves result in features of neuropathic pain which can clinically present as hypersensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli. Preliminary data in both mice and patients with SCD reveal they both display hypersensitivity to heat and cold stimuli when in baseline state of health. In mice, this hypersensitivity worsens with hypoxia-reoxygenation, a laboratory-induced method that induces sickling phenomenon. It is not known whether this worsening sensitivity occurs in patients with SCD and the underlying reason for this hypersensitivity is not known. Chronic inflammation, including leukotrienes, has been shown to sensitize pain sensing nociceptors in non-SCD models. In addition, leukotrienes have been shown to be elevated in SCD patients compared to controls, increase further during acute pain, and higher levels have been associated with more frequent pain. The contribution of leukotrienes to peripheral sensitization in SCD has not been studied. Thus, this proposal aims to further study peripheral sensitization in humans with SCD using a validated methodology called quantitative sensory testing (QST) where thermal (heat, cold) pain thresholds can be safely and feasibly measured and will explore the association of leukotrienes with this sensitivity. We will use QST to evaluate heat and cold pain thresholds during an acute pain event and determine the relationship of leukotriene levels to these thermal pain thresholds at baseline and during pain. Results of this proposal have the potential to provide a mechanistic-based guide for further studies into the neurobiology of SCD pain and ultimately may contribute to the discovery of novel targets for therapeutics to prevent or treat SCD pain and relieve the suffering that patients with SCD experience.

Public Health Relevance

Although pain has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of patients with sickle cell disease, there is a lack of understanding of why pain occurs and this has hindered the development of new treatments for sickle cell pain. Thus, this research proposes to study the underlying reason that patients with sickle cell disease experience pain by focusing on pain caused by damage to or change in the peripheral nerves. We will investigate potential reasons why neuropathic pain may develop including whether ongoing inflammation contributes to this pain.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZHL1)
Program Officer
Werner, Ellen
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Medical College of Wisconsin
Schools of Medicine
United States
Zip Code
Hilliard, Lee M; Kulkarni, Varsha; Sen, Bisakha et al. (2018) Red blood cell transfusion therapy for sickle cell patients with frequent painful events. Pediatr Blood Cancer 65:e27423
Payne, Jason; Aban, Inmaculada; Hilliard, Lee M et al. (2018) Impact of early analgesia on hospitalization outcomes for sickle cell pain crisis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 65:e27420
Brandow, Amanda M; DeBaun, Michael R (2018) Key Components of Pain Management for Children and Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 32:535-550
Darbari, Deepika S; Brandow, Amanda M (2017) Pain-measurement tools in sickle cell disease: where are we now? Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2017:534-541
Curtis, Susanna; Brandow, Amanda M (2017) Responsiveness of Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain domains and disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures in children and adults with sickle cell disease. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2017:542-545
Brandow, Amanda M; Zappia, Katherine J; Stucky, Cheryl L (2017) Sickle cell disease: a natural model of acute and chronic pain. Pain 158 Suppl 1:S79-S84
Brandow, Amanda M; Nimmer, Mark; Simmons, Timothy et al. (2016) Impact of emergency department care on outcomes of acute pain events in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol 91:1175-1180
Brandow, Amanda M; Panepinto, Julie A (2016) Clinical Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing as a Measure of Pain Sensitivity in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 38:288-93
Brandow, Amanda M; Wandersee, Nancy J; Dasgupta, Mahua et al. (2016) Substance P is increased in patients with sickle cell disease and associated with haemolysis and hydroxycarbamide use. Br J Haematol 175:237-245
Brandow, Amanda M; Farley, Rebecca A; Panepinto, Julie A (2015) Early insights into the neurobiology of pain in sickle cell disease: A systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62:1501-11

Showing the most recent 10 out of 13 publications