Tobacco use is responsible for 90% of all lung cancers. A large prospective study carried out by the investigators of Project 1 of this POI reported a 2-5 fold difference among US racial/ethnic minorities in the risk of lung cancer due to cigarette smoking. The overall hypothesis of this program project grant is that this differential cancer risk is due to dissimilarities in exposure and response to tobacco smoke carcinogens. The exposure of a smoker to tobacco carcinogens is driven by nicotine addiction. Their response to nicofine and to most carcinogens is directiy influenced by the metabolism of these compounds. Two key routes of nicotine and carcinogen metabolism are P450-catalyzed oxidation and UGT-catalyzed conjugation. 4- (Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco specific nitrosamine, is a designated human carcinogen. It is the overall goal of this project to characterize racial/ethnic differences in the glucuronidation pathway of nicotine and NNK metabolism and to determine the SNPs present in UGTs associated with these differences. Three glucuronidation pathways will be studied: nicofine glucuronidation, and the glucuronidation oftwo NNK metabolites, NNAL and a-hydroxymethylNNK. The pathways will be assessed by urinary levels of glururonide metabolites and UGT variants will be characterized in vitro. Our preliminary data provided evidence of lower nicotine glucuronidation in African Americans relative to European Americans, and this project will focus on these two groups. However, through interactions with the large genome wide association study of carcinogen exposure and metabolism in project 1 we will extend our studies to other ethnic/racial groups.
Our aims are to confirm the observed ethnic/racial difference in nicotine glucuronidation, and to extend our studies to NNAL glucuronidation. We will test the hypothesis that the extent of NNAL /V-glucuronidation is lower in racial/ethnic groups with a higher risk of smoking related lung cancer. NNAL glucuronidation is a key detoxification pathway of NNK. In the rat we have identified a 2""""""""'^ potentially more important NNK detoxification pathway, glucuronidation of a-hydroxymethylNNK. In the last two aims of this project we will develop the methodology to quantify this glucuronide in smokers and to test our hypothesis that its formation in smokers is critical to the regulation of DNA adduct formation and potentially cancer risk.

Public Health Relevance

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths woridwide. This POI examines the genetic factors that affect how people smoke and respond to carcinogens. The mechanistic understanding of how variations in UGT activity/expression affect the metabolism of nicotine and NNK strengthens any association between UGTs and lung cancer identified and will provide targets for smoking cessafion and lung cancer prevention.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1-RPRB-7)
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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
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Patel, Yesha M; Park, Sunghim L; Han, Younghun et al. (2016) Novel Association of Genetic Markers Affecting CYP2A6 Activity and Lung Cancer Risk. Cancer Res 76:5768-5776
Park, Sungshim L; Tiirikainen, Maarit I; Patel, Yesha M et al. (2016) Genetic determinants of CYP2A6 activity across racial/ethnic groups with different risks of lung cancer and effect on their smoking intensity. Carcinogenesis 37:269-79
Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Jain, Vipin et al. (2016) Optimized Liquid Chromatography Nanoelectrospray-High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Analysis of 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-Releasing DNA Adducts in Human Oral Cells. Chem Res Toxicol 29:1849-1856
Zanetti, Krista A; Wang, Zhaoming; Aldrich, Melinda et al. (2016) Genome-wide association study confirms lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15 and 15q25 in an African-American population. Lung Cancer 98:33-42
Patel, Yesha M; Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G et al. (2016) Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer. PLoS One 11:e0156203
Haiman, Christopher A; Patel, Yesha M; Stram, Daniel O et al. (2016) Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort. PLoS One 11:e0150641
Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock et al. (2015) High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation. Chem Biol Interact 241:23-31
Zarth, Adam T; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S (2015) Benzene oxide is a substrate for glutathione S-transferases. Chem Biol Interact 242:390-5
Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun et al. (2015) Combined analysis of the tobacco metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine. Anal Chem 87:1514-7
Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Ming, Xun et al. (2015) Variation in levels of the lung carcinogen NNAL and its glucuronides in the urine of cigarette smokers from five ethnic groups with differing risks for lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 24:561-9

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