3 OVERALL PROGRAM CRITIQUE 3 PROGRAM LEADERSHIP 4 PROGRAM AS AN INTEGRATED EFFORT 5 COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS 5 PROJECT AND CORE SUMMARIES OF DISCUSSION 5 PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS 7 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS 8 ADDITIONAL REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS 8 PROJECT 1: NLR in Host Response to Gamma-Herpesviruses 9 PROJECT 2: Regulators of Innate Immune Responses to Gamma-herpesviruses 17 PROJECT 3: Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Regulating Gamma-Herpesvirus-Host-Interactions 26 PROJECT 4: In Vivo Interactions Between a Gamma-Herpesvirus and Innate Immune Responses 34 CORE A: Administrative Service 43 CORE B: Virology Core 46 COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS 50 SPECIAL EMPHASIS PANEL ROSTER DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Through co-evolution with hosts, herpesviruses have acquired strategies to exploit their hosts, allowing their own life-long persistence while intermittently being secreted and transmitted to naive hosts. By evading host defense mechanisms, herpesviruses can persist in hosts and cause various diseases. Members of the gamma-herpesvirus subfamily (Epsetin-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesviruses and gamma herpesvirus-68) are distinct in their ability to establish latent infections in lymphocytes and cause benign or malignant tumors in infected hosts. It remains elusive how gamma-herpesviruses evade host innate immunity during their acute and persistent infections. Understanding the mechanisms of viral evasion mechanism is essential for developing approaches to prevent or control the virus associated cancers. Innate immunity is not only the first line of defense against pathogens, but is also critical for stimulating adaptive immune responses. The objective is to understand the mechanisms by which cells mount innate defense responses and tumor-associated-herpesviruses thwart components of the defense mechanisms, to establish a foundation for rational design of vaccine candidates that can elicit effective immune responses and reduce associated cancer incidence. There are four projects: 1) Interactions of gamma-herpesviruses with NLRs (Cart Ware);2) Regulators of innate immune responses to gamma-herpesvirus infection (Sumit Chanda);3) Role of microRNAs in regulating host interactions (Tariq Rana);4) Restoring immune responses to gamma-herpesviruses (Ren Sun);coordinated by an Administrative Core (Ren Sun) and facilitated by a Virology Technical Service Core (Ting-Ting Wu). A team of investigators with diverse and complementing expertise has been working together and obtained critical preliminary data as the foundation for the Program. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the interactions between virus-host innate defenses will be utilized to develop a new vaccine strategy. This translational research program will provide critical information for vaccine development to prevent cancers associated with gamma-herpesviruses.
At least ~200,000 new cases of EBV-associated malignances occur annually and similar numbers of Kaposi's sarcoma cases are reported each year worldwide. Vaccines are the most effective and affordable approach to these cancers, especially in resource-limited areas. This Program is to dissect the viral immune evasion mechanism to rationally design vaccine.
|Yau, Edwin H; Rana, Tariq M (2018) Next-Generation Sequencing of Genome-Wide CRISPR Screens. Methods Mol Biol 1712:203-216|
|Gong, Danyang; Zhang, Tian-Hao; Zhao, Dawei et al. (2018) High-Throughput Fitness Profiling of Zika Virus E Protein Reveals Different Roles for Glycosylation during Infection of Mammalian and Mosquito Cells. iScience 1:97-111|
|Jain, Prashant; Boso, Guney; Langer, Simon et al. (2018) Large-Scale Arrayed Analysis of Protein Degradation Reveals Cellular Targets for HIV-1 Vpu. Cell Rep 22:2493-2503|
|Dai, Xinghong; Gong, Danyang; Lim, Hanyoung et al. (2018) Structure and mutagenesis reveal essential capsid protein interactions for KSHV replication. Nature 553:521-525|
|Du, Yushen; Xin, Li; Shi, Yuan et al. (2018) Genome-wide identification of interferon-sensitive mutations enables influenza vaccine design. Science 359:290-296|
|Gong, Danyang; Dai, Xinghong; Xiao, Yuchen et al. (2017) Virus-Like Vesicles of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Activate Lytic Replication by Triggering Differentiation Signaling. J Virol 91:|
|Yau, Edwin H; Kummetha, Indrasena Reddy; Lichinchi, Gianluigi et al. (2017) Genome-Wide CRISPR Screen for Essential Cell Growth Mediators in Mutant KRAS Colorectal Cancers. Cancer Res 77:6330-6339|
|Šedý, John R; Balmert, M Olivia; Ware, Brian C et al. (2017) A herpesvirus entry mediator mutein with selective agonist action for the inhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator. J Biol Chem 292:21060-21070|
|Du, Yushen; Chi, Xiumei; Wang, Chong et al. (2017) Quantifying perinatal transmission of Hepatitis B viral quasispecies by tag linkage deep sequencing. Sci Rep 7:10168|
|Du, Yushen; Zhang, Tian-Hao; Dai, Lei et al. (2017) Effects of Mutations on Replicative Fitness and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Binding Affinity Are Among the Determinants Underlying Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Escape of HIV-1 Gag Epitopes. MBio 8:|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 26 publications