iPSCs have the potential to treat a wide range of intractable diseases. In recent years, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for regenerative medicine. hESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyte and can be kept in an undifferentiated, self-renewing state indefinitely. In contrast to adult somafic cells, hESCs have the advantage of being pluripotent, which endows them with the ability to differentiate into virtually every cell type in the human body. However, the clinical use of human embryos is controversial in the US, and the problem of tissue rejection following transplantation in patients remains difficult. One way to circumvent these issues is to generate autologous iPSCs. Successful reprogramming of adult fibroblast cells into iPSCs based on defined factors was reported independently in 2008 by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University, Japan {Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) and James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin (Ocf4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28) (2). The main advantage of iPSCs is that they eliminate the need for human embryos or oocytes to generate patient-specific stem, cells and therefore can potentially bypass the ethical and political debates that have traditionally limited support for this field. A second important advantage is that the use of IPSCs obviates the need for immunosuppressive therapy because the cells are patient-specific. With the rapid progress in the iPSC field, patient-specific and disease-specific iPSCs from individuals with a variety of genetic diseases, such as Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) have been generated(3,4). Furthermore, different derivatives and cell types have also been generated from IPSCs such as cardiomyocytes and motor neurons (4,5), making iPSCs an attractive candidate for regenerative medicine.

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Patterson, Benjamin; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Park, In-Hyun (2017) New Advances in Human X chromosome status from a Developmental and Stem Cell Biology. Tissue Eng Regen Med 14:643-652
Zhao, Ming-Tao; Shao, Ning-Yi; Hu, Shijun et al. (2017) Cell Type-Specific Chromatin Signatures Underline Regulatory DNA Elements in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Somatic Cells. Circ Res 121:1237-1250
Xiang, Yangfei; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Patterson, Benjamin et al. (2017) Fusion of Regionally Specified hPSC-Derived Organoids Models Human Brain Development and Interneuron Migration. Cell Stem Cell 21:383-398.e7
Zhao, Ming-Tao; Chen, Haodong; Liu, Qing et al. (2017) Molecular and functional resemblance of differentiated cells derived from isogenic human iPSCs and SCNT-derived ESCs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E11111-E11120
Hysolli, Eriona; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Su, Juan et al. (2016) Regulation of the DNA Methylation Landscape in Human Somatic Cell Reprogramming by the miR-29 Family. Stem Cell Reports 7:43-54
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Marjani, Sadie L; Hu, Zhaoyang et al. (2016) Single-Cell Sequencing for Precise Cancer Research: Progress and Prospects. Cancer Res 76:1305-12
Hu, Shijun; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Jahanbani, Fereshteh et al. (2016) Effects of cellular origin on differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells. JCI Insight 1:
Liu, Renjing; Kim, Kun-Yong; Jung, Yong-Wook et al. (2016) Dnmt1 regulates the myogenic lineage specification of muscle stem cells. Sci Rep 6:35355
He, Chunjiang; Hu, Hanyang; Wilson, Kitchener D et al. (2016) Systematic Characterization of Long Noncoding RNAs Reveals the Contrasting Coordination of Cis- and Trans-Molecular Regulation in Human Fetal and Adult Hearts. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 9:110-8
Burridge, Paul W; Diecke, Sebastian; Matsa, Elena et al. (2016) Modeling Cardiovascular Diseases with Patient-Specific Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Methods Mol Biol 1353:119-30

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