Project Ill's long-term goal is to learn how sister chromatid cohesion proteins regulate gene expression and development in Drosophila. This addresses the Program's long-term goal of explaining the etiology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). CdLS shows many birth defects, including slow growth, mental deficits and structural defects in limbs and organs. CdLS is caused by mutations in three genes encoding sister chromatid cohesion proteins: NIPBL, Smc1 and Smc3. Smc1 and Smc3 are part of the cohesin complex that glues sister chromatids together, and NIPBL puts cohesin on chromosomes. CdLS mutations weakly reduce cohesion protein activity, and do not cause overt chromosome cohesion defects. Early work in Drosophila showed that cohesin also regulates gene expression. This Program is thus testing the idea that changes in gene expression cause CdLS structural birth defects. The data show that NIPBL and cohesin positively and negatively regulate hundreds of genes in human, mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila. It remains unknown what types of target genes, or what numbers or sizes of gene expression differences cause the developmental defects. It is also unknown if decreased cell proliferation contributes to the slow growth or structural birth defects in CdLS. This question arises from the discovery that cohesin regulates expression of known regulators of growth, cell proliferation and protein synthesis, in human, mouse, zebrafish and Drosophila. Project 111 will address key unanswered questions in two Specific Aims: (1) Effects of NIPBL and cohesin dosage on the dynamics of gene expression during development of larval imaginal discs will be measured genome-wide using microarrays. Combinations of target genes identified by the expression screens will be tested to see if changes in their expression cause developmental defects. (2) Effects of NIPBL and cohesin dosage and nutrtion on cell proliferation and growth in larval tissues, and expression of genes that regulate growrth will be quantified. The potential roles of growth regulators will be tested genetically. Increased knowledge of cohesin's roles in gene expression and development will hopefully lead to better diagnosis and therapy for CdLS.

Public Health Relevance

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is genetic disease that causes slow growth, mental impairment, and abnormalities in the face, arms, hands, gut and heart. This project will use fruit flies as model system to discover how the gene changes in CdLS cause these problems. The information from these studies will help develop better methods for diagnosing and treating CdLS.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Type
Research Program Projects (P01)
Project #
5P01HD052860-07
Application #
8378233
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZHD1-DSR-N)
Project Start
2012-02-01
Project End
2016-01-31
Budget Start
2012-02-01
Budget End
2013-01-31
Support Year
7
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$263,064
Indirect Cost
$38,712
Name
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Department
Type
DUNS #
073757627
City
Philadelphia
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19104
Yuen, Kobe C; Xu, Baoshan; Krantz, Ian D et al. (2016) NIPBL Controls RNA Biogenesis to Prevent Activation of the Stress Kinase PKR. Cell Rep 14:93-102
Lopez-Burks, Martha E; Santos, Rosaysela; Kawauchi, Shimako et al. (2016) Genetic enhancement of limb defects in a mouse model of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 172:146-54
Kawauchi, Shimako; Santos, Rosaysela; Muto, Akihiko et al. (2016) Using mouse and zebrafish models to understand the etiology of developmental defects in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 172:138-45
Santos, Rosaysela; Kawauchi, Shimako; Jacobs, Russell E et al. (2016) Conditional Creation and Rescue of Nipbl-Deficiency in Mice Reveals Multiple Determinants of Risk for Congenital Heart Defects. PLoS Biol 14:e2000197
Dorsett, Dale (2016) The Drosophila melanogaster model for Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Implications for etiology and therapeutics. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 172:129-37
Wu, Yaning; Gause, Maria; Xu, Dongbin et al. (2015) Drosophila Nipped-B Mutants Model Cornelia de Lange Syndrome in Growth and Behavior. PLoS Genet 11:e1005655
Ramos, Feliciano J; Puisac, Beatriz; Baquero-Montoya, Carolina et al. (2015) Clinical utility gene card for: Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet 23:
Izumi, Kosuke; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Zhe et al. (2015) Germline gain-of-function mutations in AFF4 cause a developmental syndrome functionally linking the super elongation complex and cohesin. Nat Genet 47:338-44
Krantz, Ian D (2014) Cohesin embraces new phenotypes. Nat Genet 46:1157-8
Visnes, T; Giordano, F; Kuznetsova, A et al. (2014) Localisation of the SMC loading complex Nipbl/Mau2 during mammalian meiotic prophase I. Chromosoma 123:239-52

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