Detection of and adaptation to stimulus-response conflict are critical and central aspects of human executive function. Yet, how such adaptation occurs is not well understood. Conflict occurs when multiple stimuli or multiple aspects of the same stimulus become associated with different behavioral responses. Behaviorally, conflict results in slower responses and increased errors. However, observers show moment-to-moment adaptation to conditions of conflict. An outcome of this adaptation is that subsequent conflicting stimuli have less of a negative impact on performance. It has been theorized that top-down control in response to conflict engages selective attention mechanisms to reduce additional conflict;this type of dynamic endogenous modulation has promise as a more ecologically valid model to study selective attention than classic experimental designs. However, the existing literature is inconsistent regarding the nature of these conflict driven attention effects. Some results point to multiple mechanisms of conflict driven attention operating at early stages of visual processing. Other results suggest that some attention mechanisms, such as distractor inhibition, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, may not play an important role in attention driven by contextual conflict. These same data do not support conflict related attention effects for early visual processing. This project proposes to use functional MRI and scalp electroencephalography to explore the brain mechanisms responsible for conflict adaptation, asking when, where and how these mechanisms affect visual processing. Specifically, we ask whether and how the brain uses selective visual attention to filter out unwanted information in response to conflict, whether conflict-driven perceptual modulation operates on feature and space based processing and whether such modulation is allocated in anticipation of impending stimulus events.

Public Health Relevance

Deficits in selective attention and conflict processing are hallmarks of many psychiatric and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between these fundamental cognitive mechanisms is an important component of developing a more complete understanding of these significant health issues.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Exploratory Grants (P20)
Project #
5P20GM103645-02
Application #
8721448
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-TWD-B)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2014-08-01
Budget End
2015-07-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$290,802
Indirect Cost
$111,847
Name
Brown University
Department
Type
DUNS #
001785542
City
Providence
State
RI
Country
United States
Zip Code
02912
Luo, X; Gee, S; Sohal, V et al. (2016) A point-process response model for spike trains from single neurons in neural circuits under optogenetic stimulation. Stat Med 35:455-74
Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun (2016) Long lasting attentional-context dependent visuomotor memory. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42:1269-74
Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun (2016) Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors. Atten Percept Psychophys 78:415-26
McCarthy, J Daniel; Song, Joo-Hyun (2016) Global attention facilitates the planning, but not execution of goal-directed reaches. J Vis 16:7
Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M et al. (2016) Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control. Cognition 152:114-26
Markant, Julie; Ackerman, Laura K; Nussenbaum, Kate et al. (2016) Selective attention neutralizes the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on memory in 9-month-old infants. Dev Cogn Neurosci 18:26-33
Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima (2016) The Development of Selective Attention Orienting is an Agent of Change in Learning and Memory Efficacy. Infancy 21:154-176
Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima (2016) An Attentional Goldilocks Effect: An Optimal Amount of Social Interactivity Promotes Word Learning from Video. J Cogn Dev 17:30-40
Markant, Julie; Oakes, Lisa M; Amso, Dima (2016) Visual selective attention biases contribute to the other-race effect among 9-month-old infants. Dev Psychobiol 58:355-65
Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D et al. (2016) Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition. Behav Brain Res 296:85-93

Showing the most recent 10 out of 39 publications