The CHIPTS global scientific agenda has a clear focus on the identification of people with HIV, as well as evidence-based prevention, treatment, care programs and policies. This leads to enhanced capacity building, as the country- and regional-level responses require country and regional-level research conducted by scientists capable of innovative research. The data provided must be of significant impact for the local epidemic. Capacity building also implies developing strategies that build sustained relationships between CHIPTS scientists and resource-limited country institutions and partners, as well as regional linkages that stimulate science to guide programmatic and policy responses to the epidemic. Finally, negotiating relationships with partnering scientists globally requires different skills than domestic community-based participatory research. Table 7.1: Global Capacity Building Core Primary Functions 1. Developing and implementing an international scientific agenda 2. Building networks of CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa 3. Capacity building for CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners to effectively work internationally Developments in science in the past 5 years have propelled evidence-based practices and policies related to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment. The last year has been especially noteworthy, with data pointing to the potential of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing transmission,[1,2] the efficacy of ART in reducing transmission in serodiscordant couples,[3] and the promise of ART-based microbicides[4] and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).[5] Because of these advances, the field now recognizes the need for a comprehensive strategy that integrates HIV testing with prevention, treatment, and care. CHIPTS scientists, working in collaboration with in-country partner institutions and scientists have provided innovative and significant contributions to these efforts. We have been at the forefront of developing new approaches to HIV testing and linkages to care[6,7] and in working with HIV-infected women in South Africa.[8,9] We have worked and written extensively on the new era of HIV prevention, which circumcision,[10-14] pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. CHIPTS scientists have also worked on models that address barriers to effective care with women in Southern Africa [8,9] men who have sex with men in Latin America and Asia,[15-27] and injecting drug users and their families in Asia.[28] CHIPTS scientists have translated science into policy and program recommendations in collaboration with resource-limited country partners, and this has resulted in useful and effective advances in the HIV/AIDS response.[29,30] We propose the following aims for the next 5 years: 1 .Science: Develop an international scientific agenda focused on CHIPTS'primary themes of sustained responses to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment services in resource-limited country settings. 2.Networking: Link CHIPTS scientists and collaborators in ongoing regional networks in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa (MENA), and sub-Saharan Africa. 3.Capacity Building: Build capacity among CHIPTS scientists and international collaborators to develop and implement collaborative projects, use state-of-the-art technology to facilitate research and collaboration, and to disseminate findings to influence policy and practice in HIV identification, prevention, and treatment.

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Shin, S S; Chang, A H; Ghosh, J K C et al. (2016) Isoniazid therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV clinics, Los Angeles, California. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20:961-6
Wynn, Adriane; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego et al. (2016) Acceptability and Feasibility of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Gaborone, Botswana, 2015. Biomed Res Int 2016:1251238
Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Segura, Eddy R et al. (2016) Anonymous partnerships among MSM and transgender women (TW) recently diagnosed with HIV and other STIs in Lima, Peru: an individual-level and dyad-level analysis. Sex Transm Infect :
Roberts, Chelsea P; Klausner, Jeffrey D (2016) Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis coinfection among men who have sex with men. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 14:1037-1046
Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang et al. (2016) Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013. AIDS Behav :
Tomlinson, Mark; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; le Roux, Ingrid M et al. (2016) Thirty-Six-Month Outcomes of a Generalist Paraprofessional Perinatal Home Visiting Intervention in South Africa on Maternal Health and Child Health and Development. Prev Sci 17:937-948
Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E et al. (2016) Individual-Level, Partnership-Level, and Sexual Event-Level Predictors of Condom Use During Receptive Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles. AIDS Behav 20:1315-26
Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Joseph Davey, Dvora et al. (2016) A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2016:4386127
Tsai, Alexander C; Tomlinson, Mark; Comulada, W Scott et al. (2016) Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Symptom Severity among South African Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Med 13:e1001943
Diaz, Chanelle M; Segura, Eddy R; Luz, Paula M et al. (2016) Traditional and HIV-specific risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 16:376

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