The CHIPTS global scientific agenda has a clear focus on the identification of people with HIV, as well as evidence-based prevention, treatment, care programs and policies. This leads to enhanced capacity building, as the country- and regional-level responses require country and regional-level research conducted by scientists capable of innovative research. The data provided must be of significant impact for the local epidemic. Capacity building also implies developing strategies that build sustained relationships between CHIPTS scientists and resource-limited country institutions and partners, as well as regional linkages that stimulate science to guide programmatic and policy responses to the epidemic. Finally, negotiating relationships with partnering scientists globally requires different skills than domestic community-based participatory research. Table 7.1: Global Capacity Building Core Primary Functions 1. Developing and implementing an international scientific agenda 2. Building networks of CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa 3. Capacity building for CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners to effectively work internationally Developments in science in the past 5 years have propelled evidence-based practices and policies related to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment. The last year has been especially noteworthy, with data pointing to the potential of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing transmission,[1,2] the efficacy of ART in reducing transmission in serodiscordant couples,[3] and the promise of ART-based microbicides[4] and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).[5] Because of these advances, the field now recognizes the need for a comprehensive strategy that integrates HIV testing with prevention, treatment, and care. CHIPTS scientists, working in collaboration with in-country partner institutions and scientists have provided innovative and significant contributions to these efforts. We have been at the forefront of developing new approaches to HIV testing and linkages to care[6,7] and in working with HIV-infected women in South Africa.[8,9] We have worked and written extensively on the new era of HIV prevention, which circumcision,[10-14] pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. CHIPTS scientists have also worked on models that address barriers to effective care with women in Southern Africa [8,9] men who have sex with men in Latin America and Asia,[15-27] and injecting drug users and their families in Asia.[28] CHIPTS scientists have translated science into policy and program recommendations in collaboration with resource-limited country partners, and this has resulted in useful and effective advances in the HIV/AIDS response.[29,30] We propose the following aims for the next 5 years: 1 .Science: Develop an international scientific agenda focused on CHIPTS'primary themes of sustained responses to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment services in resource-limited country settings. 2.Networking: Link CHIPTS scientists and collaborators in ongoing regional networks in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa (MENA), and sub-Saharan Africa. 3.Capacity Building: Build capacity among CHIPTS scientists and international collaborators to develop and implement collaborative projects, use state-of-the-art technology to facilitate research and collaboration, and to disseminate findings to influence policy and practice in HIV identification, prevention, and treatment.

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Tan, Diane; Holloway, Ian W; Gildner, Jennifer et al. (2017) Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Within Social Networks of MSM Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic. AIDS Behav 21:216-227
Chen, Iris; Zhang, Yinfeng; Cummings, Vanessa et al. (2017) Analysis of HIV Integrase Resistance in Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 33:745-748
Das, Aritra; Detels, Roger; Javanbakht, Marjan et al. (2017) Living with HIV in West Bengal, India: perceptions of infected children and their caregivers. AIDS Care 29:800-806
Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M et al. (2017) Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts. PLoS One 12:e0184482
Albert, Stephanie L; Langellier, Brent A; Sharif, Mienah Z et al. (2017) A corner store intervention to improve access to fruits and vegetables in two Latino communities. Public Health Nutr 20:2249-2259
Del Pino, Homero E; Harawa, Nina T; Liao, Diana et al. (2017) Age and Age Discordance Associations with Condomless Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Behav :
Cornelius, T; Earnshaw, V A; Menino, D et al. (2017) Treatment motivation among caregivers and adolescents with substance use disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat 75:10-16
Christopoulos, Katerina A; Cunningham, William E; Beckwith, Curt G et al. (2017) Lessons Learned From the Implementation of Seek, Test, Treat, Retain Interventions Using Mobile Phones and Text Messaging to Improve Engagement in HIV Care for Vulnerable Populations in the United States. AIDS Behav 21:3182-3193
Rotheram-Fuller, Erin J; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D et al. (2017) Replicating Evidence-Based Practices with Flexibility for Perinatal Home Visiting by Paraprofessionals. Matern Child Health J 21:2209-2218
Machado, Iona K; Luz, Paula M; Lake, Jordan E et al. (2017) Substance use among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Agreement between medical records and the ASSIST questionnaire. Drug Alcohol Depend 178:115-118

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