The CHIPTS global scientific agenda has a clear focus on the identification of people with HIV, as well as evidence-based prevention, treatment, care programs and policies. This leads to enhanced capacity building, as the country- and regional-level responses require country and regional-level research conducted by scientists capable of innovative research. The data provided must be of significant impact for the local epidemic. Capacity building also implies developing strategies that build sustained relationships between CHIPTS scientists and resource-limited country institutions and partners, as well as regional linkages that stimulate science to guide programmatic and policy responses to the epidemic. Finally, negotiating relationships with partnering scientists globally requires different skills than domestic community-based participatory research. Table 7.1: Global Capacity Building Core Primary Functions 1. Developing and implementing an international scientific agenda 2. Building networks of CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa 3. Capacity building for CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners to effectively work internationally Developments in science in the past 5 years have propelled evidence-based practices and policies related to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment. The last year has been especially noteworthy, with data pointing to the potential of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing transmission,[1,2] the efficacy of ART in reducing transmission in serodiscordant couples,[3] and the promise of ART-based microbicides[4] and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).[5] Because of these advances, the field now recognizes the need for a comprehensive strategy that integrates HIV testing with prevention, treatment, and care. CHIPTS scientists, working in collaboration with in-country partner institutions and scientists have provided innovative and significant contributions to these efforts. We have been at the forefront of developing new approaches to HIV testing and linkages to care[6,7] and in working with HIV-infected women in South Africa.[8,9] We have worked and written extensively on the new era of HIV prevention, which circumcision,[10-14] pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. CHIPTS scientists have also worked on models that address barriers to effective care with women in Southern Africa [8,9] men who have sex with men in Latin America and Asia,[15-27] and injecting drug users and their families in Asia.[28] CHIPTS scientists have translated science into policy and program recommendations in collaboration with resource-limited country partners, and this has resulted in useful and effective advances in the HIV/AIDS response.[29,30] We propose the following aims for the next 5 years: 1 .Science: Develop an international scientific agenda focused on CHIPTS'primary themes of sustained responses to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment services in resource-limited country settings. 2.Networking: Link CHIPTS scientists and collaborators in ongoing regional networks in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa (MENA), and sub-Saharan Africa. 3.Capacity Building: Build capacity among CHIPTS scientists and international collaborators to develop and implement collaborative projects, use state-of-the-art technology to facilitate research and collaboration, and to disseminate findings to influence policy and practice in HIV identification, prevention, and treatment.

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Das, Aritra; Li, Jianjun; Zhong, Fei et al. (2015) Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities. Int J STD AIDS 26:145-55
Shin, Sanghyuk S; Modongo, Chawangwa; Ncube, Ronald et al. (2015) Advanced immune suppression is associated with increased prevalence of mixed-strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among persons at high risk for drug-resistant tuberculosis in Botswana. J Infect Dis 211:347-51
Swendeman, Dallas; Comulada, W Scott; Ramanathan, Nithya et al. (2015) Reliability and validity of daily self-monitoring by smartphone application for health-related quality-of-life, antiretroviral adherence, substance use, and sexual behaviors among people living with HIV. AIDS Behav 19:330-40
Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing et al. (2015) Challenges facing HIV-positive persons who use drugs and their families in Vietnam. AIDS Care 27:283-7
Murphy, Debra A; Marelich, William D; Graham, Jamie et al. (2015) Children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS: feasibility and acceptability trial of the Children United with Buddies (CUB) intervention. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 20:117-33
Holloway, Ian W; Padilla, Mark B; Willner, Lauren et al. (2015) Effects of minority stress processes on the mental health of Latino men who have sex with men and women: a qualitative study. Arch Sex Behav 44:2087-97
McKenney, Jennie; Smith, Rachel M; Chiller, Tom M et al. (2014) Prevalence and correlates of cryptococcal antigen positivity among AIDS patients--United States, 1986-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63:585-7
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; le Roux, Ingrid M et al. (2014) A cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial evaluating perinatal home visiting among South African mothers/infants. PLoS One 9:e105934
Young, Sean D; Holloway, Ian; Jaganath, Devan et al. (2014) Project HOPE: online social network changes in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial for African American and Latino men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health 104:1707-12
Seaberg, E C; Witt, M D; Jacobson, L P et al. (2014) Differences in hepatitis C virus prevalence and clearance by mode of acquisition among men who have sex with men. J Viral Hepat 21:696-705

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