The CHIPTS global scientific agenda has a clear focus on the identification of people with HIV, as well as evidence-based prevention, treatment, care programs and policies. This leads to enhanced capacity building, as the country- and regional-level responses require country and regional-level research conducted by scientists capable of innovative research. The data provided must be of significant impact for the local epidemic. Capacity building also implies developing strategies that build sustained relationships between CHIPTS scientists and resource-limited country institutions and partners, as well as regional linkages that stimulate science to guide programmatic and policy responses to the epidemic. Finally, negotiating relationships with partnering scientists globally requires different skills than domestic community-based participatory research. Table 7.1: Global Capacity Building Core Primary Functions 1. Developing and implementing an international scientific agenda 2. Building networks of CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa 3. Capacity building for CHIPTS scientists and collaborating partners to effectively work internationally Developments in science in the past 5 years have propelled evidence-based practices and policies related to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment. The last year has been especially noteworthy, with data pointing to the potential of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing transmission,[1,2] the efficacy of ART in reducing transmission in serodiscordant couples,[3] and the promise of ART-based microbicides[4] and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).[5] Because of these advances, the field now recognizes the need for a comprehensive strategy that integrates HIV testing with prevention, treatment, and care. CHIPTS scientists, working in collaboration with in-country partner institutions and scientists have provided innovative and significant contributions to these efforts. We have been at the forefront of developing new approaches to HIV testing and linkages to care[6,7] and in working with HIV-infected women in South Africa.[8,9] We have worked and written extensively on the new era of HIV prevention, which circumcision,[10-14] pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. CHIPTS scientists have also worked on models that address barriers to effective care with women in Southern Africa [8,9] men who have sex with men in Latin America and Asia,[15-27] and injecting drug users and their families in Asia.[28] CHIPTS scientists have translated science into policy and program recommendations in collaboration with resource-limited country partners, and this has resulted in useful and effective advances in the HIV/AIDS response.[29,30] We propose the following aims for the next 5 years: 1 .Science: Develop an international scientific agenda focused on CHIPTS'primary themes of sustained responses to HIV identification, prevention, and treatment services in resource-limited country settings. 2.Networking: Link CHIPTS scientists and collaborators in ongoing regional networks in Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, Middle East/North Africa (MENA), and sub-Saharan Africa. 3.Capacity Building: Build capacity among CHIPTS scientists and international collaborators to develop and implement collaborative projects, use state-of-the-art technology to facilitate research and collaboration, and to disseminate findings to influence policy and practice in HIV identification, prevention, and treatment.

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Ojikutu, Bisola O; Srinivasan, Sumeeta; Bogart, Laura M et al. (2018) Mass incarceration and the impact of prison release on HIV diagnoses in the US South. PLoS One 13:e0198258
Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson et al. (2018) ""And Then Break the Cliché"": Understanding and Addressing HIV Vulnerability Through Development of an HIV Prevention Telenovela with Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru. Arch Sex Behav 47:1995-2005
Daniels, Joseph; Marlin, Robert; Medline, Alex et al. (2018) Getting HIV Self-Test Kits into the Home for Young African American MSM in Los Angeles: A Qualitative Report. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 29:115-119
Harawa, Nina T; Brewer, Russell; Buckman, Victoria et al. (2018) HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection, and Substance Use Continuum of Care Interventions Among Criminal Justice-Involved Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review. Am J Public Health 108:e1-e9
Bogart, Laura M; Mosepele, Mosepele; Phaladze, Nthabiseng et al. (2018) A Social Network Analysis of HIV Treatment Partners and Patient Viral Suppression in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 78:183-192
Beymer, Matthew R; Holloway, Ian W; Grov, Christian (2018) Comparing Self-Reported Demographic and Sexual Behavioral Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited Through Mechanical Turk, Qualtrics, and a HIV/STI Clinic-Based Sample: Implications for Researchers and Providers. Arch Sex Behav 47:133-142
Li, Michael J; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Gorbach, Pamina M et al. (2018) Intersecting burdens: Homophobic victimization, unstable housing, and methamphetamine use in a cohort of men of color who have sex with men. Drug Alcohol Depend 192:179-185
Ojikutu, Bisola O; Bogart, Laura M; Higgins-Biddle, Molly et al. (2018) Facilitators and Barriers to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among Black Individuals in the United States: Results from the National Survey on HIV in the Black Community (NSHBC). AIDS Behav 22:3576-3587
Reback, Cathy J; Fletcher, Jesse B (2018) Elevated HIV and STI Prevalence and Incidence Among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles County. AIDS Educ Prev 30:350-356
Kojima, Noah; Klausner, Jeffrey D (2018) An Update on the Global Epidemiology of Syphilis. Curr Epidemiol Rep 5:24-38

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