Over 3.4 million adolescents in the U.S. meet criteria for a substance use disorder, but less than 10% enter treatment each year (US DHHS, 2000a, 2000b). Data suggest that as many as 60% of parents who are aware and concerned about their adolescent's substance use are unable to get them into treatment without assistance (Szapocznik et al., 1988) and very little research has examined methods to help them. Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) has good empirical support for helping family members foster treatment entry of treatment-resistant adults, but it has not been tested in a controlled trial with parents of substance-abusing adolescents. This project will conduct a Stage I behavior therapy pilot study to modify CRAFT (CRAFT-P) and Alanon/Naranon Facilitation (ANF) for use with parents who are concerned about an out-of-treatment adolescent. A Stage II two-group randomized controlled clinical trial will then compare CRAFT-P (n=77) vs ANF (n=77) to determine if the occurrence of adolescent treatment entry significantly differs. Mixed effects models will he used to determine if participants who are enrolled in the CRAFT-P condition report reductions in adolescent substance use and behavior problems, and improvements in parenting skills, social functioning, mood, and in parent-adolescent relationship satisfaction. Problems related to a substance abusing loved affect a wide variety of American families, in all areas of the country and at all income levels (Hudson et al., 2002;Kirby et al., 2005). Research suggests that most parents not only are motivated to help their children to address their substance abuse problems, they often are able to influence them. Unfortunately, few community-based treatment programs use empirically-based family interventions that are likely to help parents engage their child in treatment, improve treatment retention, provide effective aftercare support, and help interrupt their child's trajectory from substance use to dependence. Since parents can complete CRAFT Independent of their child, it could be disseminated to them not only through community-based adolescent substance abuse treatments, but also through private practitioners and community-based mental health programs. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that, if effective, CRAFT-P could also be disseminated directly to parents via the internet. Given that the first goal of the Parents Translation Research Center is to provide effective tools for parents of substance using adolescents, this study represents an important step In that direction. Interactions with parents on our Parent Advisory Board and elsewhere suggest that many parents feel desperate for this type of help.

Public Health Relevance

Over 2.5 million adolescents in the U.S. meet criteria for a substance use disorder, but only 5% enter treatment each year. Data suggest that the majority of concerned parents are unable on their own to get their child to enter treatment. This study will modify an empirically supported treatment known as Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for use with parents of adolescent drug users and compare it to Alanon/Naranon Facilitation Training to see if it is efficacious in facilitating treatment entry for adolescents

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZDA1)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
United States
Zip Code
Winters, Ken C; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria et al. (2014) One-year outcomes and mediators of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents. Psychol Addict Behav 28:464-74
Hudson, Clifton R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Clements, Nicolle T et al. (2014) Social adjustment of women with and without a substance-abusing partner. J Psychoactive Drugs 46:106-13
Kaynak, Övgü; Winters, Ken C; Cacciola, John et al. (2014) Providing alcohol for underage youth: what messages should we be sending parents? J Stud Alcohol Drugs 75:590-605
Washio, Yukiko; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; Ball, Emily et al. (2014) A review of guidelines on home drug testing web sites for parents. J Addict Med 8:258-63
Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Rallo, Deanna et al. (2013) Integration of parenting skills education and interventions in addiction treatment. J Addict Med 7:1-7
Kaynak, Ovgu; Meyers, Kathleen; Caldeira, Kimberly M et al. (2013) Relationships among parental monitoring and sensation seeking on the development of substance use disorder among college students. Addict Behav 38:1457-63
Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M et al. (2013) Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying. Addict Behav 38:1643-50
Kirby, Kimberly C; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Dugosh, Karen L et al. (2013) Randomized clinical trial examining duration of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for cocaine abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend 132:639-45
Arria, Amelia M; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Cook, Emily T et al. (2013) Drug use patterns in young adulthood and post-college employment. Drug Alcohol Depend 127:23-30
Winters, Ken C (2013) Advances in the science of adolescent drug involvement: implications for assessment and diagnosis - experience from the United States. Curr Opin Psychiatry 26:318-24

Showing the most recent 10 out of 17 publications