Project 3: Remediation of Older Students with Reading Difficulties: Response to Intervention Through Classroom Instruction and Intervention. Project 3 (Remediation) seeks to address the gap in knowledge of effective interventions and, specifically, response to interventions (RTI), for older students with reading disabilities. While much is known regarding instruction and intervention with young students at risk for reading difficulties, considerably less is known about the factors associated with effective intervention for older students. We propose to address critical questions about identifying the levels of response expected for secondary students with reading difficulties at Tier II (reading difficulties) and Tier III (persistent reading difficulties/disabilities) of instruction. The goals of the proposed project are to a) determine the effectiveness of systematic, explicit reading practices with older students with reading problems (Grades 6-7), b) examine the response of older students with reading difficulties to more intensive interventions over time, c) vary intensive interventions systematically to determine response to standardized vs. individualized, small-group interventions, d) identify and describe the response to intervention patterns of various subgroups of students, and e) study the contextual conditions that impact students'reading and writing outcomes over time. We propose two specific aims in a 2-year longitudinal study (with one year follow-up) of two 6th grade cohorts (480 students total;320 treatment, 160 control) across two sites (Houston, Austin) participating in Tier II interventions or typical instruction.
Specific Aim 1 determines the efficacy of reading interventions by comparing outcomes in older students (Grades 6-7) with reading difficulties randomly assigned to typical reading instruction or a replacement intervention, Language!.
Specific Aim 2 determines the efficacy of response to intervention as a means for identifying students with significant reading disabilities, and procedures for evaluating intervention success, informing treatment decisions, and predicting response to treatment initially and longitudinally. Students whose RTI is less than expected will participate in Tier III interventions investigating the relative effectiveness of individualized small group intervention contrasted with standardized small group intervention. The students in Project 3 (Remediation) will be assessed and studied in Project 1 (Classification) and imaged in Project 4 (MSI). Project 3 (Remediation) is designed to parallel Project 2 (Early Intervention), sharing common measures and a focus on RTI and the comparison of individualized vs. standardized intervention protocols. The proposed research will enhance our understanding of the practices related to classification, definition, and treatment of reading disabilities in older students.
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