As children with learning disabilities (LD) are increasingly served in general education classrooms, where response to intervention models (RTI) have become pervasive, better understanding classroom learning environments that support or do not support children with LD has the potential to improve their outcomes and reduce referrals to special education. Building on two large and unique data bases, the proposed project has three specific and inter-related aims. First, we will use a large data set that includes over 4000 children in first through fifth grade to examine instruction, teacher, and peer effects. These children participated in the NICHD funded studies on Individualizing Student Instruction in Reading (ISI, Connor, Morrison, Fishman, Schatschneider, &Undenwood, 2007) and so there are videotaped classroom observations (three per classroom ~ fall, winter, &spring) and an extensive battery of assessments including reading comprehension, decoding, phonological awareness, oral language, writing, executive functions, mathematics, and motivation. In addition, there are longitudinal data for approximately 425 children from 1st through 3rd grade and a smaller sample who were followed through 5th grade. Second, we will draw on the extensive Florida Progress Monitoring Reporting Network (PMRN) data base to follow these 4000 children through their transition to middle and high school. Third, we will conduct two experimental studies, recruiting the ISI students who will be in middle school and high school at the time ofthe experiments to better understand the mechanisms underlying reading comprehension and LD that may be related reciprocally to the classroom environment. These include enacted representation, motivation, stress, and anxiety. Broadly implemented, the results ofthe proposed studies have the potential to improve general education classrooms for children with LD and their classmates, to explicate the transition to middle and high school for children with LD and the aspects of elementary schooling that ease or interfer with these transitions, and to improve reading comprehension instruction by identifying potential mechanisms for intervention.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed study examines the first through fifth grade classroom learning environment for children with learning disabilities, who face serious and life-long challenges including limited academic achievement that impacts later life success, with the goal of improving the educational support these children receive during their early schooling careers.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Specialized Center (P50)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZHD1-DSR-H)
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Florida State University
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Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K (2015) Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results From a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers. J Learn Disabil 48:433-45
Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov et al. (2015) Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study. Child Dev 86:159-75
Wagner, Richard K; Herrera, Sarah K; Spencer, Mercedes et al. (2015) Reconsidering the simple view of reading in an intriguing case of equivalent models: commentary on Tunmer and Chapman (2012). J Learn Disabil 48:115-9
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Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia et al. (2014) The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners. Read Writ 27:237-253
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Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie et al. (2014) The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties. Learn Disabil Q 37:148-160

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