This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. Infants infected with HIV have a more severe course of disease and persistently higher viral loads than HIV-infected adults. However, the underlying pathogenesis of this exacerbation remains obscure. Here we compared the rate of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of neonatal and adult rhesus macaques, and of normal and age-matched simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected neonates. The results demonstrate infant primates have much greater rates of CD4(+) T-cell proliferation than adult macaques, and that these proliferating, recently """"""""activated"""""""" CD4(+) T cells are infected in intestinal and other lymphoid tissues of neonates, resulting in selective depletion of proliferating CD4(+) T cells in acute infection. This depletion is accompanied by a marked increase in CD8(+) T-cell activation and production, particularly in the intestinal tract. The data indicate intestinal CD4(+) T cells of infant primates have a markedly accelerated rate of proliferation and maturation resulting in more rapid and sustained production of optimal target cells (activated memory CD4(+) T cells), which may explain the sustained """"""""peak"""""""" viremia characteristic of pediatric HIV infection. Eventual failure of CD4(+) T-cell turnover in intestinal tissues may indicate a poorer prognosis for HIV-infected infants.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Type
Primate Research Center Grants (P51)
Project #
5P51RR000164-50
Application #
8358025
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRR1-CM-8 (01))
Project Start
2011-05-01
Project End
2012-04-30
Budget Start
2011-05-01
Budget End
2012-04-30
Support Year
50
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$57,750
Indirect Cost
Name
Tulane University
Department
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
053785812
City
New Orleans
State
LA
Country
United States
Zip Code
70118
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