The middle school years are peak years for initiation of alcohol and marijuana (Johnston et al., 2004). Unfortunately, most youth who engage in substance use and experience problems are unlikely to voluntarily make use of formal prevention services (D'Amico, 2005;Johnson et al., 2001;Wu et al., 2003). A small body of recent research suggests that youth may benefit from less formal programs that are brief, voluntary, and easily accessible (Brown, 2001;Brown et al., 2005;D'Amico et al., 2004;D'Amico &Orlando, 2005). However, very few intervention programs of this type have been developed (Little and Harris, 2003). Thus, while this approach shows promise, the impact of intervention programs that younger teens may choose to attend has not been extensively examined. One such intervention, Project CHOICE, was developed and tested by the PI using NIAAA funding for developmental work (R21AA13284-01). Project CHOICE is the only voluntary intervention that has been tested for middle school youth and our small quasi-experimental study has demonstrated its efficacy in one school setting (D'Amico et al., 2005;D'Amico &Orlando, 2005). The Project CHOICE intervention addresses several critical gaps in the field, including beginning to understand voluntary service utilization among this age group and assessing how this type of program may impact school-wide use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD). The main objective of the proposed 5-year longitudinal study is to build on our initial work by conducting a more rigorous test of Project CHOICE. The study will include 16 middle schools, located in the ethnically diverse Southern California cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica, and Torrance. These schools will be randomly assigned as intervention (n= 8) or control (n = 8). We will first examine individual-level effects by testing whether Project CHOICE affects AOD-related outcomes among students who participate in the intervention. We will then examine school-level effects by testing whether AOD rates among all students in the intervention schools are affected, regardless of participation. We assume that these school-level effects will be due to changes in the school environment (e.g., Project CHOICE advertising, discussion of Project CHOICE among students, changes in social norms). In anticipation of this school-level impact, a secondary objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of who participates in Project CHOICE, as well as how these participants and changes in the school environment may influence the attitudes and behaviors of those who do not participate. This research incorporates a novel methodology for AOD involvement, as it emphasizes personal self-change efforts and natural recovery and is appealing to both using and non-using youth. The work proposed in this application represents the important next step in this line of research: to more critically evaluate Project CHOICE and its potential impact on both school-wide and individual outcomes with a larger population of youth.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AA016577-05
Application #
8094420
Study Section
Health Services Research Review Subcommittee (AA)
Program Officer
White, Aaron
Project Start
2007-09-28
Project End
2014-06-30
Budget Start
2011-07-01
Budget End
2014-06-30
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$771,614
Indirect Cost
Name
Rand Corporation
Department
Type
DUNS #
006914071
City
Santa Monica
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
90401
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Shih, Regina A; Parast, Layla; Pedersen, Eric R et al. (2017) Individual, peer, and family factor modification of neighborhood-level effects on adolescent alcohol, cigarette, e-cigarette, and marijuana use. Drug Alcohol Depend 180:76-85
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V et al. (2016) Alcohol and marijuana use trajectories in a diverse longitudinal sample of adolescents: examining use patterns from age 11 to 17 years. Addiction 111:1825-35
Tucker, Joan S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ewing, Brett A et al. (2016) Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: Associations with risky drinking and functioning in high school. Drug Alcohol Depend 167:36-41
Mizel, Matthew L; Miles, Jeremy N V; Pedersen, Eric R et al. (2016) To Educate or To Incarcerate: Factors in Disproportionality in School Discipline. Child Youth Serv Rev 70:102-111
Troxel, Wendy M; Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett et al. (2016) Sleepy Teens and Energy Drink Use: Results From an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Youth. Behav Sleep Med :1-14
Ewing, Brett A; Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V et al. (2015) Early Substance Use and Subsequent DUI in Adolescents. Pediatrics 136:868-75
Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan; D'Amico, Elizabeth (2015) Spreading the word: A process evaluation of a voluntary AOD prevention program. Am J Addict 24:315-22
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S (2015) Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school. Psychol Addict Behav 29:613-9

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