Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease affecting over four million Americans. It is characterized histologically by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular aggregates of amyloid peptide containing plaques. In addition, AD brains display robust microglial and astrocyte reactivity. Our long term goal is to identify strategies for limiting microglial activation in the AD brain as a means to prevent inflammatory mechanisms of disease progression. The specific hypothesis of this proposal is that the pre- aggregated, or oligomeric, amyloid peptide stimulates microglial activation in a fashion requiring expression of the parent amyloid precursor protein (APP). This suggests the possibility that APP is a proinflammatory receptor that is activated through formation of its own proteolytic amyloid peptide. We base this hypothesis on the following observations: 1) simulation of ligand binding by antibody cross-linking APP on the surface of microglia or a monocyte cell line stimulates activation of a tyrosine kinase based signaling cascade responsible for increased proinflammatory protein expression;2) stimulation with oligomeric peptide results in a similar profile of tyrosine kinase activation and proinflammatory protein expression;3) oligomer peptide stimulation of microglia and the monocytic cell line is dependent upon expression of APP;and 4) oligomer stimulation of microgliosis and synaptic loss in vivo in mouse brains is also dependent upon expression of APP. Based upon these data, the experimental focus of this application we will define the nature of the APP requirement for oligomer stimulation by determining whether APP is a component of a multireceptor signaling complex needed for oligomeric stimulation of microglia or whether oligomeric Abeta interacts with APP in a direct ligand-receptor fashion to mediate microgliosis.
The specific aims will address this hypothesis in vitro in the following manner: 1) Define the role of APP in oligomer-dependent interaction with microglia and monocytes. We will define whether oligomer stimulation results in A) multimerization of APP and/or B) recruitment of APP into a multi- receptor complex. We will also define whether oligomer directly interacts with APP in a classic receptor- ligand fashion. 2) Define the reactive microglial and monocytic phenotype stimulated by oligomeric peptides. We will define the APP dependent signaling response initiated by oligomer stimulation. We will also define the APP dependent secretory profile following oligomer stimulation. Specifically, we will quantitate secretion of specific proinflammatory cytokines and Abeta as well as effects on neuron toxicity.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Research Project (R01)
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Clinical Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumors Study Section (CNBT)
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Refolo, Lorenzo
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University of North Dakota
Schools of Medicine
Grand Forks
United States
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Puig, Kendra L; Kulas, Joshua A; Franklin, Whitney et al. (2016) The Ames dwarf mutation attenuates Alzheimer's disease phenotype of APP/PS1 mice. Neurobiol Aging 40:22-40
Manocha, Gunjan D; Floden, Angela M; Rausch, Keiko et al. (2016) APP Regulates Microglial Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Neurosci 36:8471-86
Puig, Kendra L; Lutz, Brianna M; Urquhart, Siri A et al. (2015) Overexpression of mutant amyloid-? protein precursor and presenilin 1 modulates enteric nervous system. J Alzheimers Dis 44:1263-78
Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Floden, Angela M; Manocha, Gunjan D et al. (2015) Attenuation of microglial activation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease via NFAT inhibition. J Neuroinflammation 12:42
Manocha, Gunjan D; Puig, Kendra L; Austin, Susan A et al. (2015) Characterization of Novel Src Family Kinase Inhibitors to Attenuate Microgliosis. PLoS One 10:e0132604
Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L; Combs, Colin K (2013) Pomegranate polyphenols and extract inhibit nuclear factor of activated T-cell activity and microglial activation in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. J Nutr 143:597-605
Puig, Kendra L; Combs, Colin K (2013) Expression and function of APP and its metabolites outside the central nervous system. Exp Gerontol 48:608-11
Dhawan, Gunjan; Floden, Angela M; Combs, Colin K (2012) Amyloid-ýý oligomers stimulate microglia through a tyrosine kinase dependent mechanism. Neurobiol Aging 33:2247-61
Dhawan, Gunjan; Combs, Colin K (2012) Inhibition of Src kinase activity attenuates amyloid associated microgliosis in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation 9:117
Puig, Kendra L; Floden, Angela M; Adhikari, Ramchandra et al. (2012) Amyloid precursor protein and proinflammatory changes are regulated in brain and adipose tissue in a murine model of high fat diet-induced obesity. PLoS One 7:e30378

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