Elderly patients who undergo anesthesia and non-cardiac surgery are subject to deterioration of brain function including the development of postoperative delirium (PD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). These disorders cause disability, distress for both patients and their families, are associated with other medical complications and account for significant additional health care costs. We currently use relatively primative approaches to preventing and treating PD and POCD. The proposed project expands on previous work exploring PD and POCD to propose a randomized controlled trial of perioperative dexmedetomidine to prevent PD and, potentially, POCD. Seven hundred and six patients will be enrolled at seven centers representing both academic and community hospitals. Participants will undergo preoperative cognitive testing and provide saliva samples for cortisol. Patients will be randomized to either dexmedetomidine or placebo which will be started prior to surgery and continued for 24 hours postoperatively. Follow up studies will include surveillance for delirium while in the hospital and cognitive testing at 3 and 6 months following surgery. Part of the neuropsychologic evaluation will include an assessment for mild cognitive impairment(MCI). Dexmedetomidine is a drug used for sedation in critically ill patients that provides some pain relief and controls the bodies response to stress. The sedation produced by dexmedetomidine appears more similar to natural sleep than any other drug used for anesthesia and postoperative sedation. Data indicating that dexmedetomidine can prevent delirium following cardiac surgery and the developing understanding of the causes of PD and POCD suggest that dexmedetomidine will be particularly effective. The proposed project includes important efforts to further define POCD and understand the pathophysiology of these problems. The evaluation of patients for MCI represents a particularly important and challenging innovation in the study of PD and POCD. PUBLIC HEALTH: Almost eight million elderly patients had surgery in 2004. Perhaps 10% of those patients suffer from problems that can be thought of as postoperative brain failure. These problems are extremely expensive in terms of health care dollars and cause significant disability - representing the next challenge for physicians as they confront the increasing surgical burden of the baby boom generation.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Research Project (R01)
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National Institute on Aging Initial Review Group (NIA)
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Wagster, Molly V
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Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Schools of Medicine
New York
United States
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Deiner, Stacie; Luo, Xiaodong; Silverstein, Jeffrey H et al. (2015) Can Intraoperative Processed EEG Predict Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly? Clin Ther 37:2700-5
Esses, Gary; Deiner, Stacie (2015) Can performance on daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with mild cognitive impairment? J Am Geriatr Soc 63:830-1
Schenning, Katie J; Deiner, Stacie G (2015) Postoperative Delirium in the Geriatric Patient. Anesthesiol Clin 33:505-16
Amrock, Levana G; Neuman, Mark D; Lin, Hung-Mo et al. (2014) Can routine preoperative data predict adverse outcomes in the elderly? Development and validation of a simple risk model incorporating a chart-derived frailty score. J Am Coll Surg 219:684-94
Amrock, Levana G; Deiner, Stacie (2014) The implication of frailty on preoperative risk assessment. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 27:330-5
Deiner, Stacie; Westlake, Benjamin; Dutton, Richard P (2014) Patterns of surgical care and complications in elderly adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 62:829-35
Deiner, Stacie; Lin, Hung-Mo; Bodansky, Daniella et al. (2014) Do stress markers and anesthetic technique predict delirium in the elderly? Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 38:366-74
Deiner, Stacie; Chu, Isaac; Mahanian, Michelle et al. (2014) Prone position is associated with mild cerebral oxygen desaturation in elderly surgical patients. PLoS One 9:e106387
Amrock, Levana G; Deiner, Stacie (2014) Perioperative frailty. Int Anesthesiol Clin 52:26-41
Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Reynolds 3rd, Charles F et al. (2014) Can performance on daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with mild cognitive impairment? J Am Geriatr Soc 62:1347-52

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