Innate immunity in animals and plants can be activated by highly conserved pathogen/microbe- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Recent studies provide evidence that plant stomata, pores in the epidermis of plants, function in innate immunity against the entry of bacteria into the plant. Specifically, stomata close in response to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 or bacterial PAMPs. Perception of PAMPs by guard cells, the pair of cells that forms the stomatal pore, requires a flagellin receptor as well as production and signaling of the plant hormones abscisic acid and salicylic acid. The virulent plant pathogen Pst DC3000 produces the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) to suppress stomatal closure as a virulence strategy. Collectively, these results suggest an important role of stomata in modulating the interactions of plants with plant and human pathogenic bacteria in the phyllosphere (the leaf surface). The long-term goal of this project is to elucidate the signal transduction pathway leading to stomate- based defense and to dissect the mechanism by which the bacterial toxin COR inhibits this novel host defense. The central hypotheses to be tested are that (i) stomate-based defense is an integral part of the plant's natural immune response to restrict the entry of bacteria, including human pathogenic bacteria, and (ii) to be successful, plant pathogens must rely on specific virulence factors or environmental conditions to suppress stomate-based defense. An integrative approach involving molecular genetics, microscopy, and biochemical and pathogenesis assays will be used. The proposed research will contribute to the fundamental knowledge of innate immunity and bacterial pathogenesis in plants and will increase our understanding of the molecular basis of plant-human pathogen interactions in the phyllosphere. Human pathogen contamination of fresh vegetables is a major public health concern and a potential bio-terrorist threat as a source of food poisoning.

Public Health Relevance

This proposal describes basic research on the molecular basis of innate immunity of the model plant Arabidopsis to plant and human pathogenic bacteria. Food contamination with human pathogens is a major concern to public health. This research has the potential to provide a mechanistic understanding of plant defense and human pathogen contamination of fresh produce and to guide future development of appropriate prevention measures.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Host Interactions with Bacterial Pathogens Study Section (HIBP)
Program Officer
Leitner, Wolfgang W
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Michigan State University
Other Basic Sciences
Schools of Arts and Sciences
East Lansing
United States
Zip Code
Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L et al. (2014) Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness. Mol Plant 7:1267-87
Xin, Xiu-Fang; He, Sheng Yang (2013) Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000: a model pathogen for probing disease susceptibility and hormone signaling in plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:473-98
Roy, Debanjana; Panchal, Shweta; Rosa, Bruce A et al. (2013) Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces stronger plant immunity than Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344. Phytopathology 103:326-32
Xin, Xiu-Fang; Nomura, Kinya; Underwood, William et al. (2013) Induction and suppression of PEN3 focal accumulation during Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 26:861-7
Jiang, Shushu; Yao, Jian; Ma, Ka-Wai et al. (2013) Bacterial effector activates jasmonate signaling by directly targeting JAZ transcriptional repressors. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003715
Obulareddy, Nisita; Panchal, Shweta; Melotto, Maeli (2013) Guard cell purification and RNA isolation suitable for high-throughput transcriptional analysis of cell-type responses to biotic stresses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 26:844-9
Yao, Jian; Withers, John; He, Sheng Yang (2013) Pseudomonas syringae infection assays in Arabidopsis. Methods Mol Biol 1011:63-81
Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng et al. (2012) Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E1192-200
Zeng, Weiqing; Brutus, Alexandre; Kremer, James M et al. (2011) A genetic screen reveals Arabidopsis stomatal and/or apoplastic defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002291
Baker, C M; Chitrakar, R; Obulareddy, N et al. (2010) Molecular battles between plant and pathogenic bacteria in the phyllosphere. Braz J Med Biol Res 43:698-704

Showing the most recent 10 out of 16 publications