Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have a dismal five year survival rate of ~15%. Antitumor agents that target unique protein markers to kill NSCLC cells irrespective of growth state, and target primary and metastatic cells, are desperately needed. We completed all the proposed Aims in the prior granting period and elucidated the mechanism of action of ?-lapachone (?-lap) alone against NSCLC cells. ?-Lap was selectively efficacious for NSCLCs, in which >80% tumors had 5- to >100-fold endogenous overexpression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). ?-Lap kills NSCLC cells through an NQO1/ROS/Ca2+ER/PARP1 hyperactivation pathway, leading to ?-calpain cell death. To overcome solubility and normal tissue toxicity problems, various ?-lap delivery methods were developed. Arq501 (?-lap in hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, Arqule Chem. Co., MA) entered several Phase II clinical trials based on our work. Several novel nanoparticle micelle delivery systems that will increased the efficacy of ?-lap or pH-sensitive ?-lap prodrugs alone, or in combination with radiation therapy, will be explored in this competitive renewal. We hypothesize that cancer-targeted, pH-sensitive nanoparticle micelles loaded with ?-lap or ?-lap pH-sensitive prodrugs can be used to significantly increase the efficacy of ?-lap alone, and in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) therapy (XRT). IR + ?-lap synergy results from meeting a accumulative damage threshold, that in turn stimulates the NQO1/ROS/ Ca2+ER/PARP1 hyperactivation pathway that activates ?-calpain, a programmed necrotic/apoptotic pathway unique to ?-lap cell killing.
Three Aims will be completed:
Aim 1. To elucidate the mechanism of action of ?-lap as a radiosensitizer. (Years 1-5).
Aim 2 : To design and develop stealth, cancer-targeting nanoparticle micelles loaded with ?-lap or pH- sensitive ?-lap prodrugs to efficaciously treat human NSCLCs. (Years 1-5).
Aim 3 : To elucidate and optimize the pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity in vivo of ?-lap-loaded nanoparticle micelles alone and with XRT against NSCLCs as xenograft or orthotopic models (Years 1-5). The ultimate goal of this grant is to develop a platform of ?-lap compounds delivered by nanoparticle micelles that can efficacious treat NSCLC by exploiting their unique overexpression of NQO1.

Public Health Relevance

Patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have little hope of being cured of their diseases, with five-year survival rates at only 15%. This competitive renewal will build on the many findings of the prior grant, including: (i) evaluation and demonstration of elevated (5- to 100-fold) NQO1 levels in NSCLC populations from Hong Kong and New York;(ii) elucidation of ?-lap mechanism of action;(iii) development of novel ?-lap-encoded nanoparticles;(iv) development of pH sensitive ?-lap prodrugs;(v) efficacious antitumor activity of ?-lap against orthotopic, as well as xenograft models of A549 NSCLCs;and (vi) development of functionalized nanoparticles that can target the angiogenic endothelial cells that innervate the tumor neovasculature. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop a nanoparticle platform for the cancer-targeted delivery of ?-lap and its pH-sensitive prodrugs for the eradication of nonsmall cell lung cancers.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project (R01)
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Developmental Therapeutics Study Section (DT)
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Fu, Yali
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University of Texas Sw Medical Center Dallas
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Huang, Xiumei; Motea, Edward A; Moore, Zachary R et al. (2016) Leveraging an NQO1 Bioactivatable Drug for Tumor-Selective Use of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors. Cancer Cell 30:940-952
Madajewski, Brian; Boatman, Michael A; Chakrabarti, Gaurab et al. (2016) Depleting Tumor-NQO1 Potentiates Anoikis and Inhibits Growth of NSCLC. Mol Cancer Res 14:14-25
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da Cruz, Eduardo H G; Silvers, Molly A; Jardim, Guilherme A M et al. (2016) Synthesis and antitumor activity of selenium-containing quinone-based triazoles possessing two redox centres, and their mechanistic insights. Eur J Med Chem 122:1-16
Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Silvers, Molly A; Ilcheva, Mariya et al. (2015) Tumor-selective use of DNA base excision repair inhibition in pancreatic cancer using the NQO1 bioactivatable drug, β-lapachone. Sci Rep 5:17066
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Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Moore, Zachary R; Luo, Xiuquan et al. (2015) Targeting glutamine metabolism sensitizes pancreatic cancer to PARP-driven metabolic catastrophe induced by ß-lapachone. Cancer Metab 3:12
Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Gerber, David E; Boothman, David A (2015) Expanding antitumor therapeutic windows by targeting cancer-specific nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-biogenesis pathways. Clin Pharmacol 7:57-68
Ma, Xinpeng; Huang, Xiumei; Moore, Zachary et al. (2015) Esterase-activatable β-lapachone prodrug micelles for NQO1-targeted lung cancer therapy. J Control Release 200:201-11

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