Early use of addictive substances is a robust predictor of subsequent substance-related problems, including dependence. However, there is debate about whether policy and other interventions aimed at curbing early use would have significant effects on the development of dependence and related health problems over the long- term. The global aim of the studies proposed here is to use historical policy changes governing the age at which youth may legally purchase alcohol or tobacco as natural experiments to test the hypothesis that adolescent exposures may have very long-term effects on substance-use problems and substance-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Our recent work has established that minimum legal drinking age laws (MLDAs) may influence risk for substance use disorder, even among individuals in their 30s, 40s or 50s (Norberg et al. 2009). In this project, this approach will be extended to other long-term outcomes and a similar approach will be applied to policies restricting youth access to tobacco. Analyses will use existing epidemiological data sets, often nationally representative, with sample sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of thousands, enabling the study of heterogeneity of effects by race, sex or other variables. Econometric methods will be used to control for many observed and unobserved potential confounders. When possible, consistency of results across data sets will be examined.
Specific Aims i nclude 1.) To investigate the long-term effects of MLDA policy on binge drinking, other substance use, and co-occurring conditions and behaviors in adulthood 2.) To investigate the effects of laws restricting youth access to tobacco (YATT laws) on adult smoking behavior and adult drinking and drug use. Based on our preliminary results, as a sub-aim the hypothesis that YATT laws predict reduced rates of smoking among pregnant women will be tested. 3.) To examine morbidity and mortality effects of MLDA policy. Addiction to tobacco and alcohol are among the leading public health problems both in the U.S. and globally. The work proposed here has the potential to shed light on persistent effects of modifiable environmental risk factors for problems of clear public health relevance. Accomplishment of these aims will be facilitated by a strong-interdisciplinary team and a rich collaborative environment.
|Grucza, Richard A; Vuolo, Mike; Krauss, Melissa J et al. (2018) Cannabis decriminalization: A study of recent policy change in five U.S. states. Int J Drug Policy 59:67-75|
|Grucza, R A; Krueger, R F; Agrawal, Arpana et al. (2018) Declines in prevalence of adolescent substance use disorders and delinquent behaviors in the USA: a unitary trend? Psychol Med 48:1494-1503|
|Krauss, Melissa J; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura J et al. (2017) ""Get drunk. Smoke weed. Have fun."": A Content Analysis of Tweets About Marijuana and Alcohol. Am J Health Promot 31:200-208|
|Plunk, Andrew D; Agrawal, Arpana; Harrell, Paul T et al. (2016) The impact of adolescent exposure to medical marijuana laws on high school completion, college enrollment and college degree completion. Drug Alcohol Depend 168:320-327|
|Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Krauss, Melissa J et al. (2016) Declining Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders Among Adolescents in the United States, 2002 to 2013. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:487-494.e6|
|Few, Lauren R; Grant, Julia D; Nelson, Elliot C et al. (2016) Cannabis Involvement and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Discordant Twin Approach. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 77:873-880|
|Plunk, Andrew D; Krauss, Melissa J; Syed-Mohammed, Husham et al. (2016) The Impact of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age on Alcohol-Related Chronic Disease Mortality. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:1761-8|
|Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Krauss, Melissa J et al. (2016) Recent Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana Use and Associated Disorders in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry 73:300-1|
|Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L et al. (2015) Twitter chatter about marijuana. J Adolesc Health 56:139-45|
|Grucza, Richard A; Hur, Michael; Agrawal, Arpana et al. (2015) A reexamination of medical marijuana policies in relation to suicide risk. Drug Alcohol Depend 152:68-72|
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