Cleft palate, the most common craniofacial deformity in the USA, may caused by a failure of palatal medial edge seam (MES) cells to undergo complete disintegration, which is necessary in establishing confluence of the palatal stroma. While, Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) (-1, 2 and 3 are involved in palatogenesis, interestingly, TGF(3 is the only member of this family that is involved in palatal seam disintegration. TGF(3 signaling initiates and completes sequential phases of cellular differentiation that is required during MES disintegration, which progress between 14 to 17 embryonic days in the murine system. Understanding the cellular mechanism of palatal MES disintegration in response to TGF(3 signaling will result in new approaches to defining the causes of cleft palate and other facial clefts that may result from failure of seam disintegration. We have isolated MES primary cells to study the details of TGF(3 signaling mechanisms during palate development. To elucidate the mechanisms of MES disintegration by TGF(3, using several biochemical and genetic approaches, we demonstrated a novel mechanism of MES disintegration where MES undergoes cell cycle arrest, cell migration and apoptosis chronologically to generate immaculate palatal confluency during palatogenesis. We have shown that robust TGF(3 signaling induces both Smad dependent and Smad independent pathways to activate many transcription factors such as Snail, Slug, SIP1 and LEF1. It is unclear how these pathways and activated transcription factors promote cell cycle arrest, cell migration and apoptosis in the same cell type. We, therefore, wish to further study the mechanisms and diversity of TGF(3 signaling in MES cell function and how they are related to differential transcription factors and pathways to cause controlled MES disintegration. In this proposal, we would like to examine TGF(3 signaling towards these three individual cell functions. The broad objective of this grant is to understand the tissue transitions involved in the development of the palate and craniofacial mesenchyme in response to TGF( signaling.
Each specific aim i n the proposed study is designed to analyze the three phenotypical changes triggered by TGF(3, such as cell cycle arrest (Aim #1), migration (Aim #2) and apoptosis (Aim #3) required for MES disintegration to generate structural and functional component of the confluent palate. The rationale for this study is that successful completion of the proposed research will contribute to a missing, fundamental element to our base knowledge about the diverse functions of TGF(3 without which the cell cycle arrest, migration and apoptosis during MES disintegration cannot be understood. We believe that in some cases, knowledge of the basic cell biology will lead to more effective treatment of facial clefting.
|Ozturk, Ferhat; Sheldon, Elizabeth; Sharma, Janki et al. (2016) Nicotine Exposure During Pregnancy Results in Persistent Midline Epithelial Seam With Improper Palatal Fusion. Nicotine Tob Res 18:604-12|
|Hu, Lihua; Liu, Jingpeng; Li, Zhi et al. (2016) Transforming growth factor-Î²1 activates Î”Np63/c-Myc to promote oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 122:460-482.e4|
|Hu, Lihua; Liu, Jingpeng; Li, Zhi et al. (2015) TGFÎ²3 regulates periderm removal through Î”Np63 in the developing palate. J Cell Physiol 230:1212-25|
|Serrano, Maria J; Liu, Jingpeng; Svoboda, Kathy K H et al. (2015) Ephrin reverse signaling mediates palatal fusion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition independently of TgfÃŸ3. J Cell Physiol 230:2961-72|
|Ozturk, Ferhat; Li, You; Zhu, Xiujuan et al. (2013) Systematic analysis of palatal transcriptome to identify cleft palate genes within TGFÎ²3-knockout mice alleles: RNA-Seq analysis of TGFÎ²3 Mice. BMC Genomics 14:113|
|Jalali, Azadeh; Zhu, Xiujuan; Liu, ChangChih et al. (2012) Induction of palate epithelial mesenchymal transition by transforming growth factor Î²3 signaling. Dev Growth Differ 54:633-48|
|Zhu, Xiujuan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Liu, Changchih et al. (2012) Transforming growth factor-Ã½Ã½ activates c-Myc to promote palatal growth. J Cell Biochem 113:3069-85|
|Zhu, Xiujuan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Pandey, Sanjit et al. (2012) Implications of TGFÃ½Ã½ on Transcriptome and Cellular Biofunctions of Palatal Mesenchyme. Front Physiol 3:85|
|Walsh, Logan A; Nawshad, Ali; Medici, Damian (2011) Discoidin domain receptor 2 is a critical regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Matrix Biol 30:243-7|
|Iordanskaia, Tatiana; Nawshad, Ali (2011) Mechanisms of transforming growth factor Ã½Ã½ induced cell cycle arrest in palate development. J Cell Physiol 226:1415-24|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 12 publications