Craniomaxillofacial reconstruction continues to be a significant clinical challenge. The estimated cost for repairing craniomaxillofacial defects exceeds several billion dollars. Reconstructive surgery is primarily aimed at restoring the patient to normal function using bone grafts such as autografts, allografts, and synthetic materials. However, currently available treatment methods have significant clinical drawbacks. Therefore, there is an urgent clinical need to create a novel bone graft material that can be used to restore craniomaxillofacial defects successfully and avoids drawbacks of current bone grafts. A unique design criterion is developed to synthesize bone putty to achieve a novel multifunctionality that serves for better repair and/or regeneration of damaged or lost craniomaxillofacial bone tissues. We hypothesize that novel, multifunctional bone putty promotes bone formation at the local defect site. The bone putty will be synthesized using growth factors encapsulated chitosan microparticles, calcium chloride, and methyl cellulose. Each material selected for bone putty provides bone-specific properties to enhance bone growth. The multifunctional properties cannot be achieved with currently available bone graft substitutes. One of the main advantage of this approach compared with traditional block scaffolds, is that this bone putty can be administered by injection, creating the possibility of filling defects of different shapes and size through minimally invasive surgery. Upon implantation, our bone putty is expected to mold easily to the irregular implant site, and the pores should provide a space for both bone tissue and vascular ingrowth, as required for effective healing. Our main goal is to create bone putty that has bone-specific multifunctionality using benign biomaterials and mild processing techniques and that will restore and heal bone defects at local sites. Therefore, this bone putty will possess biocompatibility;biodegradability;injectability;osteoconductivity;osteoinductivity moldability;ability to deliver a precise amount of growth factor over time at the local site;structural (not brittle), and mechanical integrity similar to trabecular bone;ability to release C2+ and over time;immobility at the defect site;less mixing and working time at the operation room;porosity required for cell infiltration, bone formation-remodeling, and vascularization at the defect site. Bone morphogenetic protein, (BMP-2) release kinetics from bone putty will be compared with that of commercially available collagen sponge containing BMP-2 (Medtronic) over time. The bone putty will be assessed for the biocompatibility and rate and extent of osteogenesis toward an osteoblast phenotype and production of mineralized matrix in vitro. The bone putty will be implanted into a rat calvarial critical size defect. The outcomes of the bone regeneration from bone putty will be compared with commercially available calcium phosphate cement or collagen sponge with BMP-2.

Public Health Relevance

of this research to public health exists in the development of novel injectable bone putty that can be applied into craniomaxillofacial defects, orthopaedic bone defects, and spine fusion. The potential outcome from this novel interdisciplinary project will have an enormous impact on many scientific and medical communities, including regenerative medicine, bone biology, and craniomaxillofacial and musculoskeletal diseases.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Study Section (MTE)
Program Officer
Drummond, James
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Toledo
Schools of Medicine
United States
Zip Code
Gaihre, Bipin; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2018) Injectable nanosilica-chitosan microparticles for bone regeneration applications. J Biomater Appl 32:813-825
Gaihre, Bipin; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2018) Comparative investigation of porous nano-hydroxyapaptite/chitosan, nano-zirconia/chitosan and novel nano-calcium zirconate/chitosan composite scaffolds for their potential applications in bone regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 91:330-339
Unagolla, Janitha M; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2018) Drug transport mechanisms and in vitro release kinetics of vancomycin encapsulated chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte microparticles as a controlled drug delivery system. Eur J Pharm Sci 114:199-209
Gaihre, Bipin; Uswatta, Suren; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2018) Nano-scale characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite incorporated chitosan particles for bone repair. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 165:158-164
Gaihre, Bipin; Uswatta, Suren; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2017) Reconstruction of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects Using Tissue-Engineering Strategies with Injectable and Non-Injectable Scaffolds. J Funct Biomater 8:
Uswatta, Suren P; Okeke, Israel U; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2016) Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 69:505-12
Mantripragada, Venkata P; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2016) Effect of dual delivery of antibiotics (vancomycin and cefazolin) and BMP-7 from chitosan microparticles on Staphylococcus epidermidis and pre-osteoblasts in vitro. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 67:409-417
Snoddy, Brian; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2016) The use of nanomaterials to treat bone infections. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 67:822-833
Gaihre, Bipin; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2016) Fabrication and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose novel microparticles for bone tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 69:733-43
Mantripragada, Venkata P; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C (2016) Bone regeneration using injectable BMP-7 loaded chitosan microparticles in rat femoral defect. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 63:596-608

Showing the most recent 10 out of 17 publications