The ciliopathies are an emerging group of clinically overlapping disorders, hallmarked by features that include retinal degeneration, renal cystic disease, and central and peripheral nervous system defects. The unification of diverse clinical phenotypes such as nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl, Meckel-Gruber and Jeune syndromes is driven by both common cellular basis (defects at the primary cilium) and genetic overlap, where mutations in the same genes can both cause discrete phenotypes and contribute modifying mutations that modulate the penetrance and expressivity of primary genetic lesions. These observations have led to the idea that the total mutational load in the primary cilium is a strong phenotypic determinant. Moreover, robust, physiologically relevant in vitro and in vivo assays that report on organelle output affords us the opportunity to study the nature and properties of second-site modifiers in humans. During the first funding period, we established the ciliopathies as a unified entity, identified several causal and modifying genes and alleles, and developed assays to evaluate their effect. We now propose to expand on this work and, for the first time, assess the total mutational load in a discrete, biochemically characterized macromolecular system ciliary functional system. We will 1) sequence a large cohort of patients across the severity spectrum for all known intraflagellar transport genes and ask how phenotypic severity might track with genetic lesions;2) we will functionally assay all discovered alleles using a combination of in vivo complementation and in vitro protein stability and localization assays in ciliated cells;3) finally, we will begin to interrogate the significance of such alleles in mammals. As part of our Preliminary Data, we have identified a missense allele, P209L, in IFT139 that appears genetically sufficient to cause cystic renal disease but also interacts with alleles in other ciliopathy genes as a potential cystogenic modifier. We will therefore engineer a knock-in mouse and ask a) whether homozygosity for this mutation is sufficient for renal cyst formation;and b) whether introduction of 209L in a genetically sensitized background can exacerbate or potentiate cystic renal disease. Our studies will yield additional loci that cause ciliary disease and expand our knowledge base of second-site modifiers. Moreover, we anticipate that understanding of the genetic attributes of epistasis has the potential to inform a broad range of disorders and improve the clinical utility of genetic information.

Public Health Relevance

Although individually rare, the ciliopathies collectively represent a significant health burden and their genetic dissection will expedite prognosis, management, and treatment. Moreover, this group of disorders is emerging as an exceptionally useful system to study the relationship between genetic load in a functional system and clinical variability, offering a unique opportunity to understand pathology and disease progression at the level of the individual patient.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK072301-10
Application #
8607539
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel ()
Program Officer
Rasooly, Rebekah S
Project Start
2005-08-01
Project End
2015-01-31
Budget Start
2014-02-01
Budget End
2015-01-31
Support Year
10
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$432,149
Indirect Cost
$154,065
Name
Duke University
Department
Anatomy/Cell Biology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
044387793
City
Durham
State
NC
Country
United States
Zip Code
27705
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Liu, Yangfan P; Tsai, I-Chun; Morleo, Manuela et al. (2014) Ciliopathy proteins regulate paracrine signaling by modulating proteasomal degradation of mediators. J Clin Invest 124:2059-70
Davis, Erica E; Frangakis, Stephan; Katsanis, Nicholas (2014) Interpreting human genetic variation with in vivo zebrafish assays. Biochim Biophys Acta 1842:1960-1970
Gee, Heon Yung; Otto, Edgar A; Hurd, Toby W et al. (2014) Whole-exome resequencing distinguishes cystic kidney diseases from phenocopies in renal ciliopathies. Kidney Int 85:880-7
Shaheen, Ranad; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Loucks, Catrina M et al. (2014) Mutations in CSPP1, encoding a core centrosomal protein, cause a range of ciliopathy phenotypes in humans. Am J Hum Genet 94:73-9
Halbritter, Jan; Bizet, Albane A; Schmidts, Miriam et al. (2013) Defects in the IFT-B component IFT172 cause Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes in humans. Am J Hum Genet 93:915-25
Oh, Edwin C; Katsanis, Nicholas (2013) Context-dependent regulation of Wnt signaling through the primary cilium. J Am Soc Nephrol 24:10-8
Niederriter, Adrienne R; Davis, Erica E; Golzio, Christelle et al. (2013) In vivo modeling of the morbid human genome using Danio rerio. J Vis Exp :e50338
Basten, Sander G; Davis, Erica E; Gillis, Ad J M et al. (2013) Mutations in LRRC50 predispose zebrafish and humans to seminomas. PLoS Genet 9:e1003384
Hjeij, Rim; Lindstrand, Anna; Francis, Richard et al. (2013) ARMC4 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia with randomization of left/right body asymmetry. Am J Hum Genet 93:357-67

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