The use of the atypical antipsychotic (AAPs) medications is associated with a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the schizophrenic population. AAPs induce tremendous weight gain in patients and to date, metabolic consequences are thought to be secondary to increased body adiposity. However, preliminary data from our laboratory demonstrate direct effects on the pancreatic b-cell and the liver independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. We have found increased endogenous glucose production, post-prandial hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia as well as decreased insulin sensitivity after only 9 days of olanzapine administration to healthy control subjects. In the proposed inpatient studies, we will expand these findings and examine the effects of olanzapine and aripiprazole compared to placebo on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in normal weight control subjects. The overall hypothesis is that olanzapine blocks muscarinic inhibition of endogenous glucose production, resulting in increased EGP and hyperinsulinemia which in turn promote lipogenesis. In contrast, aripiprazole is expected to exhibit limited effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. SPA1: Determine if the olanzapine-induced increase in endogenous glucose production is due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity. In Study 1, normal weight control subjects will be randomized to one of three experimental conditions;olanzapine, aripiprazole or placebo. Subjects will undergo a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of 6,6-[2H2]-glucose to determine endogenous glucose production. We will compare the magnitude of suppression of endogenous glucose production by hyperinsulinemia prior to and following drug administration. SPA2: Determine if olanzapine prevents muscarinic suppression of endogenous glucose production. In Study 2, after treatment randomization as described above, subjects will undergo a pancreatic islet clamp with a stable isotope infusion. We will determine the effect of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol on EGP prior to and following AAP administration. SPA3: Determine if olanzapine induces an increase in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and VLDL- apoB100 production. In Study 3, following treatment randomization, subjects will undergo an 17-h infusion of [1-13C] labeled acetate and 15-h infusion of [5,5,5,-2H3] labeled leucine to determine hepatic de novo lipogenesis and VLDL apobB100 production prior to and following administration of the AAPs or placebo. Findings from these studies will explain why olanzapine and potentially other AAPs are associated with metabolic disease, help direct future mechanistic studies in clinical populations and provide insight on the role of the nervous system in glucose homeostasis and the etiology of T2DM.

Public Health Relevance

The atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disease are associated with tremendous weight gain and increased incidence of diabetes. These drugs may directly impair functioning of the pancreas and the liver but investigators have not been able to differentiate treatment-emergent effects from disease and weight gain. To separate drug effects on tissue function from weight gain or disease, we will investigate the effects of two AAPs, olanzapine and aripiprazole on glucose and liver metabolism in healthy control subjects. Findings from these studies will have important clinical relevance to the treatment of schizophrenia.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-EMNR-H (50))
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Malozowski, Saul N
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Monell Chemical Senses Center
United States
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Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica et al. (2015) Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics. J Clin Psychopharmacol 35:579-82
Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna et al. (2013) Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. Diabetes 62:3232-40
Teff, Karen L; Kim, Sangwon F (2011) Atypical antipsychotics and the neural regulation of food intake and peripheral metabolism. Physiol Behav 104:590-8