Most carcinogens form covalent products, or adducts, with DNA. Adducts are believed to drive the genetic changes that convert normal cells into cancer cells, which then outgrow into a tumor. Factors that influence the formation or removal of adducts, therefore, are likely to be important determinants of human susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Moreover, agents that damage DNA can modify targets not directly relevant to cancer;directly or indirectly, DNA damaging agents may play important roles in initiating or promoting a host of other diseases. The work described below is an effort to understand how DNA adduction integrates with other biochemical factors, determinable by modern analytical tools, to define the differences in sensitivity to environmental agents that are associated with age and gender. The main focus of the work deals with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), an important human liver carcinogen that is associated with most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially when toxin works in concert with hepatitis viruses. Our work will address four gaps in knowledge. First, we shall provide a high resolution map of the biological networks of both genders of the B6C3F1 mouse at specific time points from fetus through infancy and adulthood and determine how those networks respond to AFB1. Second, the gene network data we produce will be anchored to sensitive detection of DNA adducts, using a tool that will even detect adducts in the fetus of an exposed mother. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) will be used to examine the formation and fate of DNA adducts at sensitive and resistant stages of life. Third, we shall administer to mice a chemo-interventive agent, sulphoraphane, that we expect will alter metabolic networks in a manner that will protect pre- born, infant and adult animals from this environmental insult. Finally, our experiments with AFB1 will be coupled with a more limited investigation of the genotoxic effects of four compounds from the NTP data set. These additional agents include4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), acrylamide and 17?-estradiol (E2). An important goal of this research is the development of a host of new biomarkers that can be applied to the mouse model, and later other models that are used to predict the impact of environmental agents on humans.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Research Project (R01)
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Cancer Etiology Study Section (CE)
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Shreffler, Carol K
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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United States
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Chawanthayatham, Supawadee; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Egner, Patricia A et al. (2015) Prenatal exposure of mice to the human liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 reveals a critical window of susceptibility to genetic change. Int J Cancer 136:1254-62
Wattanawaraporn, Roongtiwa; Woo, Leslie L; Belanger, Crystal et al. (2012) A single neonatal exposure to aflatoxin b1 induces prolonged genetic damage in two loci of mouse liver. Toxicol Sci 128:326-33
Woo, Leslie L; Egner, Patricia A; Belanger, Crystal L et al. (2011) Aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity in livers of neonatal male and female B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 122:38-44
Fiala, Jeannette L A; Egner, Patricia A; Wiriyachan, Nirachara et al. (2011) Sulforaphane-mediated reduction of aflatoxin B?-N?-guanine in rat liver DNA: impacts of strain and sex. Toxicol Sci 121:57-62
Fox, J G; Feng, Y; Theve, E J et al. (2010) Gut microbes define liver cancer risk in mice exposed to chemical and viral transgenic hepatocarcinogens. Gut 59:88-97