We propose a study of perchlorate exposure and thyroid hormone levels in 2,300 pregnant women and their newborns in San Diego County, an area with known perchlorate drinking water contamination. Perchlorate is a highly stable oxidizing chemical used in many industrial applications, and millions of people in the US are exposed to perchlorate through contaminated food or water. Perchlorate competitively inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland. Since iodide is required for thyroid hormone synthesis, this can cause a decrease in thyroid hormone production. This is a public health concern since adequate supplies of thyroid hormone are vital for proper brain and neurodevelopment, and even small decreases in this hormone during development have been linked to decreased IQ and other adverse neurological effects. Intriguing new evidence from several human studies suggests that common environmental levels of perchlorate could alter thyroid function in certain susceptible subgroups, including the developing fetus, young children, pregnant women, or those with low intake of iodine or high intake of thiocyanate. (Thiocyanate is a chemical commonly found in food which, like perchlorate, can also competitively inhibit thyroid iodide uptake). Currently, despite widespread exposure, there is no US drinking water regulatory standard for perchlorate. But if these new findings are true, public health intervention might be needed to protect infants, children, and other potential susceptibility groups. Importantly, the new evidence on perchlorate is mostly based on studies with small sample sizes, ecologic data, or limited information on potential confounders or effect modifiers. Because of this, this new evidence must be confirmed. Our proposed study plan takes advantage of thousands of blood and urine samples and questionnaire data already collected from pregnant women and their infants as part of a previous study in a perchlorate exposed area. We will use these samples to measure urine concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide, and serum concentrations of thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free-thyroxine, and thyroid antibodies in 2,300 pregnant women. Bloodspot TSH levels have already been measured in all 2,300 of the newborns of these women (increased TSH is a highly sensitive marker of decreased thyroid hormone production). Umbilical cord blood in 857 mother-infant pairs will also be used to measure perchlorate, thiocyanate, iodide, and thyroid hormones. All of these measurements will be used to investigate associations between perchlorate and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their infants and examine interactions with iodide, thiocyanate, and thyroid antibodies. Data on maternal age, education, infant gender, birth weight, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, smoking, and other questionnaire information will be used to adjust for potential confounding and to investigate effect modification. This study will be the largest to date in pregnant women and infants with individual data on perchlorate exposure. It will also be the first to include large numbers of pregnant women with low iodine and high thiocyanate levels commonly found in the US. A major advantage of our study is the availability of thousands of biologic samples and questionnaire data that have already been collected in a large group of pregnant women and infants, from an area with known perchlorate contamination. The availability of these samples and data in a defined exposed community offers a unique opportunity to investigate perchlorate toxicity in important susceptibility groups, with accurate information on perchlorate exposure and potential confounding factors, and with good statistical power. The public health importance of this research lies in the widespread extent of perchlorate exposure, the finding that even small changes in thyroid hormones may alter neurodevelopment, and the intriguing, albeit preliminary, new evidence that infants, fetuses, and pregnant women may be particularly susceptible to perchlorate. Our ultimate goal is to provide information that can be used to help determine whether a US drinking water regulatory standard is needed protect these susceptible groups, and if one is needed, provide dose-response and other information that might be useful in developing a safe and effective public health standard.

Public Health Relevance

importance of this project lies in the fact that millions of people are exposed to perchlorate. Perchlorate might reduce thyroid hormone levels in susceptible populations, and adequate supplies of thyroid hormone are vital in the fetus and child for proper brain and neurologic development. Despite millions of people being exposed, there is currently no U.S. regulatory standard for perchlorate in drinking water. Our goal is to provide new information that might be useful in determining whether a U.S. drinking water regulatory standard is needed to help protect infants and young children from the toxic effects of perchlorate.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Research Project (R01)
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Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Health, Asthma and Pulmonary Conditions Study Section (IRAP)
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Gray, Kimberly A
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University of California Berkeley
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Public Health
United States
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Rubin, Rainbow; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin et al. (2017) Maternal perchlorate exposure in pregnancy and altered birth outcomes. Environ Res 158:72-81
Steinmaus, Craig; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin et al. (2016) Thyroid Hormones and Moderate Exposure to Perchlorate during Pregnancy in Women in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 124:861-7
Steinmaus, Craig M (2016) Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects. Curr Environ Health Rep 3:136-43
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