Considerable progress was made in the first year of the no cost extension in publications that built on the grants 5 years of studying diverse hindbrain circuits and behaviors controlling eye movements, locomotion, swimming and vocalization in fish (see Publications). There were three major ongoing projects that likely would have been completed experimentally if not for Hurricaine Sandy and the closure of offices, laboratories and zebrafish facility. First, our extensive observations on the Hox 3 paralogs testing neuronal pleiotropism and modularity for horizontal and vertical eye movements were presented in a Nat Comm manuscript challenging current Hox gene dogma (currently in preparation for reviewer rebuttal) but the experimental work necessary for the rebuttal have been curtailed. Second, the role of neuronal excitability and/or endothelial vascularization along with circulation during the development of neurons, pathways and function was in the midst of being rigorously tested in motor behaviors that can be measured with high-resolution. Third, the ability to assign an exact role for an individual hox gene in determining the structure/function of a given neuronal phenotype was being assessed with corroborative behavioral and multiphoton calcium signaling. Each of these three major projects is summarized below along with their plans for completion.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
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Araj, Houmam H
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New York University
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Lyons, Peter J; Ma, Leung-hang; Baker, Robert et al. (2010) Carboxypeptidase A6 in zebrafish development and implications for VIth cranial nerve pathfinding. PLoS One 5:e12967
Ma, Leung-Hang; Punnamoottil, Beena; Rinkwitz, Silke et al. (2009) Mosaic hoxb4a neuronal pleiotropism in zebrafish caudal hindbrain. PLoS One 4:e5944
Lambert, Francois M; Beck, James C; Baker, Robert et al. (2008) Semicircular canal size determines the developmental onset of angular vestibuloocular reflexes in larval Xenopus. J Neurosci 28:8086-95
Straka, H; Baker, R; Gilland, E (2001) Rhombomeric organization of vestibular pathways in larval frogs. J Comp Neurol 437:42-55
Graf, W; Spencer, R; Baker, H et al. (2001) Vestibuloocular reflex of the adult flatfish. III. A species-specific reciprocal pattern of excitation and inhibition. J Neurophysiol 86:1376-88
Nguyen, L T; Baker, R; Spencer, R F (1999) Abducens internuclear and ascending tract of deiters inputs to medial rectus motoneurons in the cat oculomotor nucleus: synaptic organization. J Comp Neurol 405:141-59
Gilland, E; Miller, A L; Karplus, E et al. (1999) Imaging of multicellular large-scale rhythmic calcium waves during zebrafish gastrulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:157-61
Nguyen, L T; Spencer, R F (1999) Abducens internuclear and ascending tract of Deiters inputs to medial rectus motoneurons in the cat oculomotor nucleus: neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol 411:73-86
Kubke, M F; Gilland, E; Baker, R (1998) Lipophilic dye labeling distinguishes segregated central components of the eighth cranial nerve in embryonic chicken. Biol Bull 195:218-20
Graf, W; Spencer, R; Baker, H et al. (1997) Excitatory and inhibitory vestibular pathways to the extraocular motor nuclei in goldfish. J Neurophysiol 77:2765-79

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