Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction may have a key role in the pathogenesis of DR. Two populations of EPCs that arise from cultured mononuclear cells (MNC) are the late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs), which display a clonal phenotype and belong to a CD34+CD45- population;and early EPCs (eEPCs) which exhibit a monocyte phenotype (CD14+/CD45+) but demonstrate endothelial-like markers and behavior in vitro and in vivo. To address the role of these cells in diabetic retinopathy (DR) we hypothesized that in DR, eEPCs remain as the central modulator of the OECs;however, the OEC population is transiently lost in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) but it reappears as a more aggressive and proliferative population which triggers the """"""""angiogenic"""""""" switch and the onset of proliferative (PDR). The eEPC population, in contrast, never disappears entirely but rather shifts in its level of activity, being more inflammatory in PDR and less in NPDR. In both populations, dysregulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is central to these phenotypic transitions, which are further influenced by the changing bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. We are testing this hypothesis by the following aims:
Specific Aim 1 : To test whether the proliferative potential of eEPCs and OECs depends on the stage of retinopathy and determine whether eEPCs and OECs isolated from diabetic individuals produce more reactive oxygen species, contain more endogenous NOS inhibitors, and secrete a distinct cytokine profile than cells from controls.
Specific Aim 2 : To test whether the combination of nondiabetic (healthy) eEPCs and OECs will have a greater reparative function then either population alone in models of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury or in acellular capillaries in diabetic SCID mice.
Specific Aim 3 : To test whether eEPC and OEC dysfunction in diabetes is due to defects (increased adiposity, reduced hematopoiesis and progenitor dysfunction) in the BM microenvironment. These studies will allow us to determine whether eEPCs and OECs represent ideal progenitor populations for cellular therapy to improve the health of the vasculature in the diabetic eye.

Public Health Relevance

Endothelial precursors cells (EPCs) are bone marrow derived cells that have been used as novel therapies for ischemic conditions currently lacking effective treatment options. The identification, manipulation and transplantation of these cells are key to optimizing their use;however, diabetic patients have defective EPCs that cannot be used for cellular therapy such for repair of the vasodegenerative phase (acellular capillaries) of diabetic retinopathy. The focus of this application is to 1) identify the optimal EPC populations for repair, 2) characterize the defects in diabetic EPCs, 3) repair the defects, 4) optimize the timing and dosage of the EPC injections and identify the changes in the diabetic bone marrow microenvironment. These studies will be performed using human EPCs from diabetics with varying degrees of retinopathy, animal models of diabetes and knockout mice with unique characteristics that impact the bone marrow microenvironment.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01EY012601-14
Application #
8265285
Study Section
Biology and Diseases of the Posterior Eye Study Section (BDPE)
Program Officer
Shen, Grace L
Project Start
1998-09-30
Project End
2013-07-15
Budget Start
2012-06-01
Budget End
2013-07-15
Support Year
14
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$347,437
Indirect Cost
$107,437
Name
University of Florida
Department
Pharmacology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
969663814
City
Gainesville
State
FL
Country
United States
Zip Code
32611
Chakravarthy, Harshini; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana et al. (2016) Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy. PLoS One 11:e0146829
Jadhav, Vaishnavi; Luo, Qianyi; M Dominguez 2nd, James et al. (2016) Per2-Mediated Vascular Dysfunction Is Caused by the Upregulation of the Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF). PLoS One 11:e0163367
Bhatwadekar, Ashay D; Duan, Yaqian; Chakravarthy, Harshini et al. (2016) Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Dysregulation Results in Diabetic Retinopathy. Stem Cells 34:405-17
Dominguez 2nd, James M; Hu, Ping; Caballero, Sergio et al. (2016) Adeno-Associated Virus Overexpression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Reverses Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes in Mice. Am J Pathol 186:1688-700
Wang, Qi; Navitskaya, Svetlana; Chakravarthy, Harshini et al. (2016) Dual Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Action of miR-15a in Diabetic Retinopathy. EBioMedicine 11:138-150
Beli, Eleni; Dominguez 2nd, James M; Hu, Ping et al. (2016) CX3CR1 deficiency accelerates the development of retinopathy in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes. J Mol Med (Berl) 94:1255-1265
Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Febo, Marcelo et al. (2016) Depressed basal hypothalamic neuronal activity in type-1 diabetic mice is correlated with proinflammatory secretion of HMBG1. Neurosci Lett 615:21-7
Wert, Katherine J; Mahajan, Vinit B; Zhang, Lijuan et al. (2016) Neuroretinal hypoxic signaling in a new preclinical murine model for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Signal Transduct Target Ther 1:
Chakravarthy, Harshini; Navitskaya, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Sandra et al. (2016) Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Shifting the Balance Between Proinflammatory and Reparative Bone Marrow Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy. Stem Cells 34:972-83
Busik, Julia V; Grant, Maria B (2015) Wnting out ocular neovascularization: using nanoparticle delivery of very-low density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain as Wnt pathway inhibitor in the retina. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 35:1046-7

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