Three-dimensional (3d) displays have become very important for many applications including vision research, operation of remote devices, medical imaging, surgical training, scientific visualization, virtual prototyping, and more. It is important in these applications for the graphic image to create a faithful impression of the 3d structure of the object or scene being portrayed. Unfortunately, 3d displays often yield less perceived depth or even distorted percepts compared with real scenes. Additionally, the uncoupling of vergence and accommodation required by 3d displays frequently causes viewer discomfort and fatigue. We received four years of funding to investigate these problems with conventional 3d displays and to develop new displays to minimize those problems. We achieved all of the stated goals and now seek funding to continue the technical development of the display and to use it to conduct basic and applied vision research. There are five Specific Aims. 1. Continue the construction, development, and evaluation of multi-plane 3d displays using the switchable lens technology developed in the first grant period. 2. Investigate how blur and accommodation affect stereopsis. Examine how the ability to binocularly fuse and interpret complex images is affected by the correlation between disparity-specified depth and blur and accommodative signals. Investigate the role of blur and accommodation in the perceived distortions observed with stereoscopic photographs and cinema. Develop more accurate models of these phenomena based on the experimental results. 3. Investigate the role of blur and accommodative signals in the perception of size and distance. Examine how the orientation of the blur gradient relative to the depth gradient affects the so-called tilt-shift miniaturization effect. Examine how variation in blur relative to local depth variations and how active accommodation affect size and distance perception. 4. Re-examine some well-known effects in the structure-from-motion and shape-from-shading literatures to determine if they are caused in part by conflicting blur and accommodative information. If they are, develop more accurate models of these phenomena based on the experimental results. 5. Evaluate the benefits of providing stereoscopic and near-correct focus cues in a medical-imaging application. Assess the ability to track fibers in white-mater tracts from DTI data using 2d, conventional 3d, and multi-plane 3d displays. Measure perceptual accuracy, time required, and visual fatigue and discomfort in the three types of displays.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed research will investigate the perception of displayed visual information. It involves the construction and evaluation of new display technology, optics techniques, and graphics methods. All of these technical developments will be useful in creating three-dimensional displays with near-correct focus cues which would allow the users of virtual reality to see the 3d structure of simulated scenes more correctly. This would have clear benefit for many uses of virtual reality such as medical imaging, minimally invasive surgery, telesurgery, medical training, and scientific visualization. This may also yield side benefits such as correction for presbyopia.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Research Project (R01)
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Central Visual Processing Study Section (CVP)
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Wiggs, Cheri
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University of California Berkeley
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
United States
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Kim, Joohwan; Johnson, Paul V; Banks, Martin S (2014) Stereoscopic 3D display with color interlacing improves perceived depth. Opt Express 22:31924-34
Banks, Martin S; Kim, Joohwan; Shibata, Takashi (2013) Insight into Vergence-Accommodation Mismatch. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 8735:
Vangorp, Peter; Richardt, Christian; Cooper, Emily A et al. (2013) Perception of Perspective Distortions in Image-Based Rendering. ACM Trans Graph 32:
Hoffman, David M; Karasev, Vasiliy I; Banks, Martin S (2011) Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth. J Soc Inf Disp 19:271-297
Burge, Johannes; Girshick, Ahna R; Banks, Martin S (2010) Visual-haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. J Neurosci 30:7714-21
Burge, Johannes; Fowlkes, Charless C; Banks, Martin S (2010) Natural-scene statistics predict how the figure-ground cue of convexity affects human depth perception. J Neurosci 30:7269-80
O'Shea, James P; Agrawala, Maneesh; Banks, Martin S (2010) The influence of shape cues on the perception of lighting direction. J Vis 10:21
Held, Robert T; Cooper, Emily A; O'Brien, James F et al. (2010) Using Blur to Affect Perceived Distance and Size. ACM Trans Graph 29:
Hoffman, David M; Banks, Martin S (2010) Focus information is used to interpret binocular images. J Vis 10:13
Hoffman, David M; Hands, Philip J W; Kirby, Andrew K et al. (2009) Stereo display with time-multiplexed focal adjustment. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 7237:72370R

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