Protein drugs are one of the fastest growing segments of the pharmaceutical industry. The strong demand for these drugs reflects their ability to treat previously intractable diseases, including cancers, infectious disease, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of currently marketed protein drug products are amorphous solids, a form often chosen to prolong shelf-life and preserve potency. Nevertheless, protein drugs undergo a variety of physical and chemical degradation processes in the solid state. Aggregation is one of the most common of these processes. Since the presence of aggregates is associated with decreased potency and with an increased potential for life-threatening immunogenic side effects, they must be detected and removed during manufacturing and storage. This adds to the cost of producing protein drugs, ultimately increasing the cost to the patient and precluding the commercialization of promising new protein drugs that cannot be stabilized effectively. The goal of this research program is to develop rational methods for preventing protein aggregation in the solid state based on a thorough understanding of the chemical (i.e., covalent) and physical (i.e., non- covalent) mechanisms involved. The central hypothesis is that protein aggregation in amorphous solids is the result of specific covalent reactions and/or the exposure of aggregation-prone """"""""hot spots"""""""" in the protein sequence, both of which can be prevented by designing the solid environment. Studies proposed for Specific Aim 1 will elucidate the mechanisms of thiol-disulfide exchange and disulfide scrambling in amorphous solids and will identify solid properties that control these reactions. The studies test the hypothesis that these common routes of covalent aggregation favor different pathways in solution and in the solid state and are influenced by solid composition.
Specific Aim 2 will identify """"""""hot spots"""""""" for non-covalent protein aggregation in amorphous solids using hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The work tests the hypothesis that these quantitative, high resolution measures of protein structure in amorphous solids will correlate with non-covalent aggregation during long-term storage.
Specific Aim 3 will develop a computational model that predicts protein aggregation in amorphous solids based on properties of the protein and solid, producing a tool for formulation design and identifying variables critical to preventing aggregation. The work is relevant to the NIH mission of advancing the Nation's capacity to protect and improve health in that it addresses methods to preserve the potency and safety of a rapidly growing class of drugs. The work is also consistent with the agency's goal of ensuring a continued high return on the public investment in research by providing tools and knowledge for developing active proteins into marketable drug products. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products increases the potential for life-threatening immunogenic responses when the drugs are administered to patients. Understanding aggregate formation in amorphous solids will help ensure the safety of this rapidly growing drug class. The work will also help to control drug development costs by providing a rational basis for protein drug formulation.

Public Health Relevance

The presence of aggregates in protein drug products increases the potential for life-threatening immunogenic responses when the drugs are administered to patients. Understanding aggregate formation in amorphous solids will help ensure the safety of this rapidly growing drug class. The work will also help to control drug development costs by providing a rational basis for protein drug formulation.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01GM085293-05
Application #
8223192
Study Section
Biomaterials and Biointerfaces Study Section (BMBI)
Program Officer
Smith, Ward
Project Start
2009-03-01
Project End
2013-03-31
Budget Start
2012-03-01
Budget End
2013-03-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$250,048
Indirect Cost
$67,014
Name
Purdue University
Department
Miscellaneous
Type
Schools of Pharmacy
DUNS #
072051394
City
West Lafayette
State
IN
Country
United States
Zip Code
47907
Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S et al. (2016) Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates. J Pharm Sci 105:417-30
Iyer, Lavanya K; Sacha, Gregory A; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S et al. (2016) Process and Formulation Effects on Protein Structure in Lyophilized Solids Using Mass Spectrometric Methods. J Pharm Sci 105:1684-92
Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Xie, Ruichao et al. (2016) Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Human Growth Hormone. Pharm Res 33:1370-82
Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Iyer, Lavanya K; Topp, Elizabeth M (2015) Characterizing Protein Structure, Dynamics and Conformation in Lyophilized Solids. Curr Pharm Des 21:5845-53
Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Iyer, Lavanya K; Topp, Elizabeth M (2015) Mass spectrometric approaches to study protein structure and interactions in lyophilized powders. J Vis Exp :
Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Ghomi, Hamed Tabatabaei; Lill, Markus A et al. (2015) Structural transitions and interactions in the early stages of human glucagon amyloid fibrillation. Biophys J 108:937-48
Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Topp, Elizabeth M (2015) Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone during lyophilization and storage in the solid state. J Pharm Sci 104:1291-302
Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M (2015) Photolytic Cross-Linking to Probe Protein-Protein and Protein-Matrix Interactions in Lyophilized Powders. Mol Pharm 12:3237-49
Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Epling, Daniel E; Sophocleous, Andreas M et al. (2014) Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone. J Pharm Sci 103:1032-42
Topp, Elizabeth M (2014) Commentary: current perspectives on the aggregation of protein drugs. AAPS J 16:413-4

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