Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) type are an important class of therapeutic glycoproteins. Compelling evidence has indicated that the fine structures of the glycans at the conserved N-glycosylation site (Asn-297) of the Fc domain are responsible for the distinct effector functions of MAbs, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and activation of apoptosis. In addition, a special sialylated Fc glycoform was identified to be responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). However, progress in understanding the functional roles of IgG-Fc glycosylation is hampered by the tremendous structural heterogeneity of Fc domain glycans. In addition, controlling glycosylation of MAbs in expression to a desired homogeneous glycoform is still a challenging task. In this application, we propose to explore a chemoenzymatic method to make a library of homogeneously glycosylated IgG-Fc and selected glycoforms of MAbs. Through performing Fc receptor binding studies, we aim to understand how different glycan structures can fine tune the effector functions of IgG and IgG-Fc protein. We have performed important preliminary studies indicating that it is feasible to use the endoglycosidase-based transglycosylation approach to construct defined, homogeneous glycoforms of human IgG-Fc. Building on this success, we propose to pursue three specific aims.
Aim 1 is to explore a chemoenzymatic method for the construction of various pure glycoforms of IgG-Fc.
Aim 2 is to evaluate the structure-activity realtionships of different Fc domain glycoforms in Fc receptor binding, and to evaluate ADCC activity of selectively glycoengineered monoclonal antibodies.
Aim 3 is to synthesize novel Fc domain glycoforms for evaluating the roles of IgG-Fc glycosylation in anti-inflammatory activity. The knowledge gained from the proposed research will eventually facilitate the development of novel glycoforms of MAbs and IgG-Fc proteins as effective therapeutics.
IgG antibodies are an important class of therapeutic glycoproteins. The Fc domain glycosylation is essential for antibody's effector functions including ADCC and anti-inflammatory activity. The proposed research aims to decipher the functional roles of Fc glycosylation through glycosylation engineering and Fc receptor binding studies, which may lead to the discovery of novel antibody glycoforms with potent therapeutic efficacy.
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