Researchers and program planners have begun to recognize the influence of gender inequities on women's reproductive health, including women's susceptibility to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Gender-based power is likely to influence women's susceptibility to STIs by limiting their decision-making power within relationships, including decision-making regarding use of barrier methods, by constraining their access to information and health services, and in numerous other ways. Thus, in order to be effective, STI prevention efforts must address gender-based power. However, despite a growing body of research on the effect of gender-based power on women's reproductive health, critical gaps remain, including the need to examine gender-based power at the level of the individual, couple, community and society and the need for empirical data linking modifiable aspects of gender-based power to susceptibility to HIV and STIs. Our project, """"""""Gender, power, and susceptibility to HIV/STIs in India,"""""""" will address these and other gaps. Building on formative qualitative research, we will recruit a cohort of 670 married women and their husbands in Bangalore, India, and follow them for one year to identify modifiable aspects of gender-based power associated with a range of HIV/STI susceptibility outcomes. After this quantitative component, we will conduct post- study qualitative research (focus groups and in-depth interviews) to illuminate the results of the quantitative analyses. Our goals are to characterize women's power and identify aspects of gender-based power (including men's perspectives and practices) that are associated with: susceptibility to HIV and STIs; choice, use, and continued use, after counseling, of male and female condoms; and infection with STIs and HIV (among those willing to test for these outcomes). Based on our results, we will also identify the characteristics of context-appropriate interventions aimed at enhancing women's power (e.g., enhancing women's economic power or preventing gender-based violence) and those that promote physical or chemical barrier methods (including the design of education/counseling components and recruitment strategies). As part of this latter aim, we will determine the proportion of individuals who are willing to undergo HIV and STI testing and will identify characteristics, including those related to gender-based power, of those who decline to undergo such testing.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01HD041731-05
Application #
7166802
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-AARR-7 (50))
Program Officer
Newcomer, Susan
Project Start
2001-09-26
Project End
2009-12-31
Budget Start
2006-01-01
Budget End
2006-12-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2006
Total Cost
$464,522
Indirect Cost
Name
University of California San Francisco
Department
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
094878337
City
San Francisco
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94143
Rocca, Corinne H; Shankar, Mridula; Sreevathsa, Anuradha et al. (2013) Acceptability and use of emergency contraception among married women in Bangalore, India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 121:64-8
Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Khanum, Sajida et al. (2012) An intergenerational women's empowerment intervention to mitigate domestic violence: results of a pilot study in Bengaluru, India. Violence Against Women 18:346-70
Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina Y; Rathod, Sujit et al. (2011) 'If your husband calls, you have to go': understanding sexual agency among young married women in urban South India. Sex Health 8:102-9
Chibber, Karuna S; Krishnan, Suneeta (2011) Confronting intimate partner violence: a global health priority. Mt Sinai J Med 78:449-57
Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina et al. (2011) Son preference and sterilisation use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India. Glob Public Health 6:407-20
McDougall, Janna; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Krishnan, Suneeta (2011) (Not) talking about sex: couple reports of sexual discussion and expression in Bangalore, India. Cult Health Sex 13:141-56
Chibber, Karuna Sridharan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Minkler, Meredith (2011) Physician practices in response to intimate partner violence in southern India: insights from a qualitative study. Women Health 51:168-85
Rathod, Sujit D; Minnis, Alexandra M; Subbiah, Kalyani et al. (2011) ACASI and face-to-face interviews yield inconsistent estimates of domestic violence among women in India: The Samata Health Study 2005-2009. J Interpers Violence 26:2437-56
Rocca, Corinne H; Krishnan, Suneeta; Barrett, Geraldine et al. (2010) Measuring pregnancy planning: An assessment of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among urban, south Indian women. Demogr Res 23:293-334
Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E et al. (2010) Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India. Soc Sci Med 70:136-43

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