The objective of this research is to make pulsatile heart replacement systems available to smaller adult patients. This is a non-trivial matter, because reduction in the size of a pulsatile blood pump affects (1) the fluid dynamics of the pump, (2) the energetics of the pump and actuator, and (3) the stresses experienced by the blood contacting materials. Thus, we consider studies such as those described here to be critical to the availability of artificial hearts and pulsatile ventricular assist devices for the full spectrum of patients. We propose to study the underlying principles of pump size reduction through three specific aims: FIRST, Utilize an integrated method of CFD modeling, experimental fluid dynamics techniques, in vitro testing and in vivo studies to significantly improve reduced size blood pumps and energy converter designs utilizing physical design constraints. These modeling and in-vitro studies will be used to predict system performance. The significance of these findings will be assessed through in vivo studies in calves. Thrombogenesis will be assessed through hematology studies, platelet activation studies, and explant analysis. Platelet and fibrin adhesion will be quantified by post explant gross exam, histological examination and multi-scale surface analysis. SECONDLY, we have developed relationships governing energetic performance of the system, utilizing a computer simulation of the energy converter, blood pump, circulation, controller, and energy transmission system. We will tailor control of actuator movement to improve fluid mechanics. The results of these studies will also be evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. THIRDLY, we will refine and utilize improved FEA models necessary for predicting and minimizing stresses in biomaterials, so that durability of reduced-size devices is not adversely affected by pump scaling. We expect that this research will be broadly applicable to pulsatile blood pump design, especially by improving our understanding of the relationships between surface effects, fluid dynamics, and thrombogenesis in a complex, time-varying flow field. This work requires a multi-disciplinary effort in surgery, engineering, fluid mechanics, and hematology, with the means to efficiently manufacture blood pump systems and carry out the necessary in vitro and in vivo studies.

Public Health Relevance

This research combines computational fluid dynamics, experimental fluid dynamics, systems modeling, finite element analysis, in vitro and in vivo techniques to develop a comprehensive method for the design of small blood pumps.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01HL060276-11
Application #
8098211
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-SBIB-N (03))
Program Officer
Baldwin, Tim
Project Start
1999-04-15
Project End
2013-05-31
Budget Start
2011-06-01
Budget End
2013-05-31
Support Year
11
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$718,119
Indirect Cost
Name
Pennsylvania State University
Department
Surgery
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
129348186
City
Hershey
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
17033
Cooper, Timothy K (2015) Letter to the Editor regarding the article ""Left ventricular assist devices: a kidney's perspective"". Heart Fail Rev 20:751-2
Navitsky, Michael A; Taylor, Joshua O; Smith, Alexander B et al. (2014) Platelet adhesion to polyurethane urea under pulsatile flow conditions. Artif Organs 38:1046-53
Topper, Stephen R; Navitsky, Michael A; Medvitz, Richard B et al. (2014) The Use of Fluid Mechanics to Predict Regions of Microscopic Thrombus Formation in Pulsatile VADs. Cardiovasc Eng Technol 5:54-69
Navitsky, Michael A; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B (2013) A thrombus susceptibility comparison of two pulsatile Penn State 50 cc left ventricular assist device designs. Ann Biomed Eng 41:4-16
Nanna, Jason C; Navitsky, Michael A; Topper, Stephen R et al. (2011) A fluid dynamics study in a 50?cc pulsatile ventricular assist device: influence of heart rate variability. J Biomech Eng 133:101002
Nanna, Jason C; Wivholm, Jennifer A; Deutsch, Steven et al. (2011) Flow field study comparing design iterations of a 50 cc left ventricular assist device. ASAIO J 57:349-57
Medvitz, Richard B; Reddy, Varun; Deutsch, Steve et al. (2009) Validation of a CFD methodology for positive displacement LVAD analysis using PIV data. J Biomech Eng 131:111009
Haut Donahue, T L; Dehlin, W; Gillespie, J et al. (2009) Finite element analysis of stresses developed in the blood sac of a left ventricular assist device. Med Eng Phys 31:454-60
Medvitz, Richard B; Kreider, James W; Manning, Keefe B et al. (2007) Development and validation of a computational fluid dynamics methodology for simulation of pulsatile left ventricular assist devices. ASAIO J 53:122-31
Yamanaka, Hanako; Rosenberg, Gerson; Weiss, William J et al. (2006) Short-term in vivo studies of surface thrombosis in a left ventricular assist system. ASAIO J 52:257-65

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