The central focus of this competitive renewal application is to firmly examine a specific causal role of endothelial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) deficiency in abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm formation using new lines of genetic mice (>12, out of which 9 are produced in house), and to identify novel therapeutic strategies based on recent discoveries of mechanistic details of DHFR regulation. An innovative biomarker to monitor aneurysm growth and response to treatment will also be characterized. During the previous funding cycle we have been very productive in completing all of the proposed aims, demonstrating a novel causal role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. We have also extended our studies to examination of an essential regulatory role of endothelial DHFR gene in vascular homeostasis and aneurismal development employing several new mouse lines, development of novel strategies to restore eNOS function to prevent AAA by approaches of gene therapy and pharmacological interventions targeting endothelial DHFR, identification of a clinically relevant biomarker role of circulating tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) in mice and humans to monitor aneurysms, as well as investigation of applicability to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) of the novel molecular mechanisms identified for AAA, so that some newly established therapeutic options for AAA can be extended to management of TAA. These studies are considered highly significant and translational, as there has not been any oral medicine for aneurysm treatment, besides surgical correction of large aneurysms that is also associated with considerable risk. Novel strategies for early diagnosis, monitor and treatment of aneurysms would benefit a large population of patients that accounts for 9% of the population over than 65 year old. The following four specific aims will be addressed in depth for these important missions:
Aim 1, to examine a specific and essential role of endothelial DHFR deficiency in aneurysm formation using global and endothelium-specific DHFR knockout mice, and endothelium-specific DHFR transgenic mice crossed with hph-1. Effects on AAA formation of novel DHFR upregulators will also be examined.
Aim 2, to determine whether pathways attenuating Ang II/oxidative stress inhibition of DHFR are of preventive and therapeutic value in aneurysm formation. Pathways mediating H2O2 regulation of DHFR or BP lowering drugs will be targeted for these studies.
Aim 3, to evaluate a biomarker role of circulating tetrahydrobiopterin in aneurysm formation and treatment using Ang II infused hph-1 and apoE null mice, and two patient populations.
Aim 4, to examine whether uncoupling of eNOS also mediates TAA formation downstream of TGF? pathway, hence the newly identified AAA treatment strategies in Aims 1-3 are effective in treating TAAs as well. Accomplishments of these aims will uniquely provide novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights into development and management of aortic aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysms including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) are severe human diseases and ruptured aneurysm represents the 15th leading cause of death among all disease. No medical treatments are available except for surgical correction for large aneurysms due to unclear molecular mechanisms. The proposed studies will reveal novel mechanisms and therapeutics for AAA and TAA, and a novel blood based biomarker for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aneurysms.
|Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen (2017) Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns. Redox Biol 13:402-406|
|Zhang, Yixuan; Li, Qiang; Youn, Ji Youn et al. (2017) Protein Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in Calpain-dependent Feedback Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR2) in Endothelial Cells: IMPLICATIONS IN VEGF-DEPENDENT ANGIOGENESIS AND DIABETIC WOUND HEALING. J Biol Chem 292:407-416|
|Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen (2017) Surviving With Smog and Smoke: Precision Interventions? Chest 152:925-929|
|Siu, Kin Lung; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yixuan et al. (2017) NOX isoforms in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Redox Biol 11:118-125|
|Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A; Kirabo, Annet et al. (2016) Immune activation caused by vascular oxidation promotes fibrosis and hypertension. J Clin Invest 126:50-67|
|Siu, Kin Lung; Gao, Ling; Cai, Hua (2016) Differential Roles of Protein Complexes NOX1-NOXO1 and NOX2-p47phox in Mediating Endothelial Redox Responses to Oscillatory and Unidirectional Laminar Shear Stress. J Biol Chem 291:8653-62|
|Sun, Haipeng; Olson, Kristine C; Gao, Chen et al. (2016) Catabolic Defect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Promotes Heart Failure. Circulation 133:2038-49|
|Li, Qiang; Cai, Hua (2015) ANO1 taking center stage: blood pressure regulation in SHRs. J Mol Cell Cardiol 82:216-7|
|Li, Qiang; Youn, Ji-Youn; Li, Shan et al. (2015) Reply: To PMID 25882860. J Hypertens 33:2368-70|
|Youn, Ji Youn; Cai, Hua (2015) Fueling up skeletal muscle to reduce obesity: A TrkB story. Chem Biol 22:311-2|
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