There is an ever growing demand for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), with over 100,000 devices implanted in 2004, and dramatic increases anticipated over the next decade due to expanded indications and coverage by Medicare. The growing level of acceptance of these life- saving devices has increased the desire for improved ICD function. The lifetime of the average ICD patient after implant has increased to 10 years while the average device lifetime is around 5 years. Thus, most patients require additional surgeries to replace their original device, resulting in both clinical risk and cost. The current benchmark power source technology is lithium/silver vanadium oxide (Li/SVO) developed >20 years ago. Li/SVO battery technology can display a significant midlife decrease in performance termed voltage delay. This voltage delay, a result of cathode solubility and the associated formation of a passivation film on the anode, has caused premature device explants for numerous patients at the 2.5 to 3 year point due to delays in therapy delivery. Along with the added expense of the unplanned surgery, premature device explant can create patient anxiety. Options employed to `work around' Li/SVO voltage delay lead to shortened battery life. The overall project goal is to solve this problem with fundamental science by demonstrating new superior cathode materials that could be used to extend the life and improve the consistency of ICD batteries. The proposed project has three specific objectives: 1) develop a new class of improved battery materials for ICD applications based on metal-metal-phosphorous-oxides of the MwM'xPyOz (MM'PO) family (M = silver or copper;M'= vanadium or iron), 2) test the materials in experimental batteries under simulated use schemes mimicking ICD function, and 3) compare the key characteristics of long term stability (lack of solubility and voltage delay), energy delivery, and energy content with the current battery benchmark technology (Li/SVO). The proposed activity involves the synthesis, characterization and electrochemistry of a new family of materials, MM'POs. We hypothesize that MM'POs will have improved ICD battery performance based on their fundamental chemical properties: reduced solubility of phosphate based materials compared to analogous oxide compounds, high voltage of vanadium or iron compounds yielding high levels of energy delivery, and the inclusion of silver or copper ions in the matrix to provide high volumetric energy content.

Public Health Relevance

Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are lifesaving devices which monitor and correct abnormal heart rhythms and have become an increasingly accepted treatment option. The project goal is to create a new class of materials (MM'POs) and demonstrate their superiority to the current benchmark cathode materials for ICD batteries. Ultimately, our MM'POs will extend the life and improve the consistency of ICD batteries, reducing the frequency of device replacements and the associated negative impact on patients and healthcare costs.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01HL093044-04
Application #
8208033
Study Section
Bioengineering, Technology and Surgical Sciences Study Section (BTSS)
Program Officer
Baldwin, Tim
Project Start
2008-12-15
Project End
2012-06-07
Budget Start
2011-12-01
Budget End
2012-06-07
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$183,666
Indirect Cost
$54,111
Name
State University of New York at Buffalo
Department
Engineering (All Types)
Type
Schools of Engineering
DUNS #
038633251
City
Buffalo
State
NY
Country
United States
Zip Code
14260
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Bock, David C; Tappero, Ryan V; Takeuchi, Kenneth J et al. (2015) Mapping the anode surface-electrolyte interphase: investigating a life limiting process of lithium primary batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:5429-37
Takeuchi, Esther S; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chen, Po-Jen et al. (2013) Silver Vanadium Diphosphate Ag2VP2O8: Electrochemistry and Characterization of Reduced Material providing Mechanistic Insights. J Solid State Chem 200:232-240
Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J et al. (2013) A Kinetics and Equilibrium Study of Vanadium Dissolution from Vanadium Oxides and Phosphates in Battery Electrolytes: Possible Impacts on ICD Battery Performance. J Power Sources 231:219-225
Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C et al. (2013) Silver vanadium oxide and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide dissolution kinetics: a mechanistic study with possible impact on future ICD battery lifetimes. Dalton Trans 42:13981-9
Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Yau, Shali Z; Menard, Melissa C et al. (2012) Synthetic control of composition and crystallite size of silver hollandite, Ag(x)Mn8O16: impact on electrochemistry. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:5547-54
Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J et al. (2012) Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices. Electrochim Acta 84:
Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Marschilok, Amy C et al. (2011) Ag(x)VOPO(4): A Demonstration of the Dependence of Battery-Related Electrochemical Properties of Silver Vanadium Phosphorous Oxides on Ag / V Ratios. J Power Sources 196:3325-3330
Kim, Young Jin; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J et al. (2011) Silver Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide, Ag(2)VO(2)PO(4): Chimie Douce Preparation and Resulting Lithium Cell Electrochemistry. J Power Sources 196:6781-6787
Marschilok, Amy C; Kozarsky, Eric S; Tanzil, Kevin et al. (2010) Electrochemical Reduction of Silver Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide, Ag(2)VO(2)PO(4): Silver Metal Deposition and Associated Increase in Electrical Conductivity. J Power Sources 195:6839-6846

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