Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well known to be a highly impairing and strongly persistent condition in boys and men, but knowledge about its long-term consequences in girls and women is severely limited. The core objective is to redress the major dearth of longitudinal data on females with ADHD via a rigorous, prospective, 15-year follow-up investigation, into the age span of the mid-20s, of a well-characterized, ethnically- and socioeconomically-diverse sample of girls with carefully diagnosed ADHD (n = 140), plus an age- and ethnicity/race-matched sample of comparison girls (n = 88). To the investigator's knowledge, this sample comprises the largest in existence of girls with this disorder, ascertained prior to adolescence. During earlier iterations of the curren grant, participants were recruited and investigated between the ages of 6 and 12 years (Wave 1) and followed systematically in early to mid- adolescence (Wave 2, ages 11-18 years;92% retention) and most recently in a 10-year follow-up in late adolescence/early adulthood (Wave 3, ages 17-24 years;95% retention).
Key aims for projected Wave 4 assessments, during the age span of 22-29 years, are to characterize outcomes of these women across multiple domains of functioning, including ADHD symptoms and subtypes, externalizing and internalizing behavior patterns (including antisocial behavior, mood disturbance, eating pathology, self-injurious and suicidal behavior), substance use/abuse, academic and vocational performance, neuropsychological skills, peer and family relations, health-related parameters, and service utilization. The overall goal is to understand trajectories of development, impairment, and (in some cases) positive adjustment, with the strongest focus on outcomes of major clinical and conceptual importance to female development: (a) educational attainment and employment status;(b) relationships/interpersonal functioning;(c) self-harm (i.e., suicidal behavior and sel-injury, which were present at strikingly high rates during the 10-year follow- up);(d) executive functioning;and (e) health-related behaviors. The project's established methods of ascertaining positive adjustment will be followed. A related aim is to characterize baseline predictors and moderators and adolescent mediators of adult functioning, via stringent and sophisticated statistical methods. The proposed Wave 4 assessments feature psychometrically rigorous, multi-method, and multi- informant measures, many of which are identical or parallel across all four waves, facilitating growth-curve and growth-mixture modeling. Because of (i) major gaps in knowledge surrounding adult adjustment of women with ADHD and (ii) the potential for unique findings to emerge during the age span of the mid-20s, examination of female developmental trajectories into adulthood is a key priority.
Such aims will be met in this innovative and rigorou investigation, with the potential to enhance both basic and clinical science.

Public Health Relevance

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder in males, but far less is known about female manifestations across development. This study will continue a prospective longitudinal investigation of a large, diverse, and well-characterized sample of girls with ADHD, ascertained in childhood, into a fourth wave of data collection during the age span of 22-29 years. Trajectories toward both impairment and adaptive functioning will be explored. This research has major relevance for basic science, clinical science, and public health, given the substantial impairments linked to ADHD in females.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01MH045064-20
Application #
8699265
Study Section
Child Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Study Section (CPDD)
Program Officer
Friedman-Hill, Stacia
Project Start
1990-04-01
Project End
2018-06-30
Budget Start
2014-07-01
Budget End
2015-06-30
Support Year
20
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
University of California Berkeley
Department
Other Health Professions
Type
Graduate Schools
DUNS #
City
Berkeley
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94704
Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2016) Response Inhibition, Peer Preference and Victimization, and Self-Harm: Longitudinal Associations in Young Adult Women with and without ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:323-34
Guendelman, Maya D; Owens, Elizabeth B; Galán, Chardee et al. (2016) Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Dev Psychopathol 28:1-14
Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2016) Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Abnorm Psychol 125:220-32
Gard, Arianna M; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2016) Prenatal Smoke Exposure Predicts Hyperactive/Impulsive but Not Inattentive ADHD Symptoms in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls. Infant Child Dev 25:339-351
Guendelman, Maya D; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I et al. (2016) Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predicts Intimate Partner Victimization in Young Women. J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:155-66
Gordon, Chanelle T; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2015) Parenting Stress as a Mediator Between Childhood ADHD and Early Adult Female Outcomes. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol :1-12
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I et al. (2015) Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 124:576-88
Swanson, Erika N; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2014) Pathways to self-harmful behaviors in young women with and without ADHD: a longitudinal examination of mediating factors. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55:505-15
Swanson, Erika N; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P (2014) Pathways to self-harmful behaviors in young women with and without ADHD: a longitudinal examination of mediating factors. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55:505-15
Miller, Meghan; Sheridan, Margaret; Cardoos, Stephanie L et al. (2013) Impaired decision-making as a young adult outcome of girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 19:110-4

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