The process of recovery in schizophrenia involves resolving persistent symptoms and improving functional outcomes. Our research groups have demonstrated that using environmental supports in the patient's home to bypass deficits in cognitive functioning in a treatment called Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) improves adherence to medications and functional outcomes in schizophrenia and that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) decreases symptomatology and the negative effect of persisting symptoms upon individuals with this disorder. Data suggest these treatments have modality specific effects. Targeting both functional outcomes and persistent positive symptoms in a multimodal cognitive treatment provided in the patient's home is likely to have the most robust effects on functional outcomes, persistent symptoms and the distress caused by these symptoms for individuals with schizophrenia. We propose to randomize 200 individuals with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic medications to one of four psychosocial treatments for a period of 9 months: 1) CAT, 2) CBT, 3) Multimodal Cognitive Treatment (Mcog;an integrated treatment featuring aspects of both CAT and CBT), and 4) standard treatment as usual (TAU). Patients will be followed for 6 months after treatment is completed. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and every 3 months. Primary outcome variables with include measures of symptomatology and functional outcome. We hypothesize that patients in treatments with CBT as a component (CBT and Mcog) will improve to a greater extent on measures of symptomatology than those randomized to non-CBT treatments (CAT or TAU) and that patients in Mcog will improve to a greater extent than those in single modality CBT. Moreover, we hypothesize that patients in treatments with CAT as a component (CAT and Mcog) will improve to a greater extent on measures of symptomatology than those randomized to non-CAT treatments (CBT or TAU) and that patients in Mcog will improve to a greater extent than those in single modality CAT. The potential public health implications of promoting recovery in schizophrenia through multi-modal treatments are profound. By integrating effective treatments the potential for synergistic improvements can be assessed. Home visits can be costly. Maximizing the benefits to patients by providing multi-modal treatment on the same home visit is likely to improve a broader range of outcomes with minimal additional cost. Many individuals with schizophrenia continue to hear voices, have false beliefs, and problems with attention, memory planning and everyday functioning even with medication treatment. The process of recovery in schizophrenia involves treating the whole person. This study will test a new Multimodal Cognitive Treatment (Mcog). Mcog works around problems in attention, memory and planning by using supports in the home such as signs, checklists, and alarms to improve everyday functioning. Mcog also helps the individual to examine the evidence for their beliefs and to deal with symptoms like voices that are not completely resolved with medications. We will compare 4 treatments to determine if this combined approach improves both symptoms and functioning for individuals with schizophrenia.
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|Velligan, Dawn I; Draper, Meredith; Stutes, Donna et al. (2009) Multimodal cognitive therapy: combining treatments that bypass cognitive deficits and deal with reasoning and appraisal biases. Schizophr Bull 35:884-93|