The long-term objectives of the proposed studies are to understand the mechanisms underlying the expression of hemispheric specialization, particularly as it relates to language evolution and development. In the proposed studies, there are five mains aims. First, we aim to investigate whether microstructrual asymmetries are present in post-mortem brain tissue in specific regions of the cortex associated with language and speech functions as well as handedness. Post-mortem brains will collected and sections of tissue from specific regions of interest will be subjected to a variety of molecular and staining technqiues that allow for quantification of neuronal density and distribution. Second, whether microstructural asymmetries are associated with individual differences in gross anatomical asymmetries from comparable brain regions will be assessed in the proposed work. Post-mortem brains will be scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and morphological regions of interest will be quantified and correlated with subsequent miscrostructural asymmetries measured from the same region.
A third aim of the proposed studies is to assess whether individual differences in handedness are associated with microstructural asymmetries. Hand preferences for multiple measures will be assessed in a large group of subjects and upon natural death, the handedness of the subjects will be correlated with the morphological and microstructural asymmetries measured from the various brain regions of interest. Fourth, whether oro-facial asymmetries in the production of voluntary and involuntary sounds are differentially associated with neuroanatomical asymmetries from the language homolgs will be evaluted. Lastly, whether differences in orienting asymmetries to different classes of acoustic stimuli are present in primates will be assessed. Moreover, whether orienting asymmetries to different classes of stimuli are associated with variation in neuroanatomical asymmetries will be examined in the proposed studies. Overall, the proposed studies will provide invaluable data on the factors influencing the development and evolution of typical and atypical hemispheric specialization associated with communicative behavior as well as other motor, perceptual and cognitive functions.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Research Project (R01)
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Cognitive Neuroscience Study Section (COG)
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Babcock, Debra J
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Emory University
Other Domestic Higher Education
United States
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Latzman, Robert D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D (2017) Triarchic Psychopathy Dimensions in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Investigating Associations with Genetic Variation in the Vasopressin Receptor 1A Gene. Front Neurosci 11:407
Hopkins, William D; Li, Xiang; Crow, Tim et al. (2017) Vertex- and atlas-based comparisons in measures of cortical thickness, gyrification and white matter volume between humans and chimpanzees. Brain Struct Funct 222:229-245
Hopkins, William D; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier et al. (2017) Motor skill for tool-use is associated with asymmetries in Broca's area and the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behav Brain Res 318:71-81
Muntané, Gerard; Santpere, Gabriel; Verendeev, Andrey et al. (2017) Interhemispheric gene expression differences in the cerebral cortex of humans and macaque monkeys. Brain Struct Funct 222:3241-3254
Hopkins, William D; Coulon, Oliver; Meguerditchian, Adrien et al. (2017) Genetic Factors and Orofacial Motor Learning Selectively Influence Variability in Central Sulcus Morphology in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Neurosci 37:5475-5483
Verendeev, Andrey; Sherwood, Chet C (2017) HUMAN BRAIN EVOLUTION. Curr Opin Behav Sci 16:41-45
Duka, Tetyana; Collins, Zachary; Anderson, Sarah M et al. (2017) Divergent lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme profile in cellular compartments of primate forebrain structures. Mol Cell Neurosci 82:137-142
Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria et al. (2016) Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis. Neuropsychologia 93:325-334
Latzman, Robert D; Drislane, Laura E; Hecht, Lisa K et al. (2016) A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Model of Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs: Development and Initial Validation. Clin Psychol Sci 4:50-66
Latzman, Robert D; Young, Larry J; Hopkins, William D (2016) Displacement behaviors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A neurogenomics investigation of the RDoC Negative Valence Systems domain. Psychophysiology 53:355-63

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