The Research Plan describes a series of experiments that will examine how spatial information is processed in the mammalian brain. In previous studies a population of neurons was identified within the mammillary nuclei to anterior thalamus to hippocampal formation axis that discharge as a function of the animal's head direction (HD), independent of the animal's behavior and spatial location. This spatial signal provides a model system for examining how primary sensory information, entering through various sensory pathways, is transformed into a "higher level cognitive signal" representing the organism's spatial relationship with its environment. The mechanisms that accomplish this transformation in the central nervous system are not known.
The first aim contains four experiments and is designed to determine how the HD signal is derived and processed from known sensory inputs.
This aim also determines the role of the HD system in generating the recently discovered grid cell representation in entorhinal cortex.
The second aim will better define the underlying anatomical connections within the HD cell circuit at the brainstem level.
The third aim determines how visual landmark spatial information is processed in the brain.
The fourth aim addresses how animals use the HD signal to guide behavior by addressing the link between HD cell responses and behavior in a spatial task. In sum, these studies will provide insight into how spatial information is organized and processed in the brain and will enhance our understanding of the functional role of HD cells during navigation. The results will have implications for human health and behavior. It is common for elderly patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease, a disease often associated with marked pathology in limbic system structures, to experience spatial disorientation to the extent that constant supervision is required. Learning how spatial information is processed in the rat brain will give us clues about the complex nature of spatial processes in humans.

Public Health Relevance

The results from these experiments will provide key information in understanding the basic neural mechanisms underlying spatial orientation. Ultimately, we would like to develop a better neurophysiological understanding of how spatial orientation information is organized in the brain to enable an organism to navigate accurately. This information could then be used to develop effective treatments for spatial disorders such as vertigo, motion sickness, and navigational disorders. Further, it is common for patients with vestibular disorders, elderly patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease, a disease often associated with marked pathology in limbic system structures, to experience spatial disorientation to the extent that constant supervision is required. Learning how spatial information is processed in the rat brain will provide important clues about the complex nature of spatial processes in humans.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS053907-16
Application #
8265900
Study Section
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Study Section (LAM)
Program Officer
Chen, Daofen
Project Start
1992-09-15
Project End
2016-06-30
Budget Start
2012-07-01
Budget End
2013-06-30
Support Year
16
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$345,625
Indirect Cost
$126,875
Name
Dartmouth College
Department
Psychology
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
041027822
City
Hanover
State
NH
Country
United States
Zip Code
03755
Shinder, M E; Taube, J S (2014) Resolving the active versus passive conundrum for head direction cells. Neuroscience 270:123-38
Shinder, Michael E; Taube, Jeffrey S (2014) Self-motion improves head direction cell tuning. J Neurophysiol 111:2479-92
Clark, Benjamin J; Rice, James P; Akers, Katherine G et al. (2013) Lesions of the dorsal tegmental nuclei disrupt control of navigation by distal landmarks in cued, directional, and place variants of the Morris water task. Behav Neurosci 127:566-81
Taube, Jeffrey S; Shinder, Michael (2013) On the nature of three-dimensional encoding in the cognitive map: Commentary on Hayman, Verriotis, Jovalekic, Fenton, and Jeffery. Hippocampus 23:14-21
Gibson, Brett; Butler, William N; Taube, Jeffery S (2013) The head-direction signal is critical for navigation requiring a cognitive map but not for learning a spatial habit. Curr Biol 23:1536-40
Taube, Jeffrey S; Valerio, Stephane; Yoder, Ryan M (2013) Is navigation in virtual reality with FMRI really navigation? J Cogn Neurosci 25:1008-19
Taube, Jeffrey S; Wang, Sarah S; Kim, Stanley Y et al. (2013) Updating of the spatial reference frame of head direction cells in response to locomotion in the vertical plane. J Neurophysiol 109:873-88
Clark, Benjamin J; Harris, Mark J; Taube, Jeffrey S (2012) Control of anterodorsal thalamic head direction cells by environmental boundaries: comparison with conflicting distal landmarks. Hippocampus 22:172-87
Clark, Benjamin J; Taube, Jeffrey S (2011) Intact landmark control and angular path integration by head direction cells in the anterodorsal thalamus after lesions of the medial entorhinal cortex. Hippocampus 21:767-82
Yoder, Ryan M; Clark, Benjamin J; Taube, Jeffrey S (2011) Origins of landmark encoding in the brain. Trends Neurosci 34:561-71

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