Recent data from our program demonstrate that the level of HIV DNA within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC HIV DNA) is a strong marker of cognitive impairment in patients who are naive to HAART, patients on chronic HAART, and among patients with undetectable plasma HIV RNA. Based on preliminary data, PBMC HIV DNA likely represents the degree of HIV infection in circulating monocytes rather than lymphocytes. Since activated cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated Dementia (HAD), HIV DNA may be an important neuropathogenic marker. New data presented in this application reveal that pre-HAART HIV DNA level predicts 12-month post-HAART cognitive function. We also present evidence that HIV DNA may increase monocyte chemotaxis by elevating MCP-1 secretion from monocytes, a finding that would be expected to increase transmigration of monocytes to the brain. The potential significance of these findings becomes more apparent in the context of incomplete cognitive recovery after HAART. Incomplete cognitive recovery could be an active or passive (permanent brain damage) process. A major gap in our current knowledge relates to a lack of biological marker of this incomplete recovery. Developing our hypotheses is likely to advance this area of science and bridge this gap in our knowledge-base. We propose to define the long-term dynamic relationship between the inability of HAART to eradicate HIV DNA in the peripheral monocyte reservoir and cognitive performance among patients initiating HAART for the first time in Bangkok, Thailand. We will define the clinical correlate with neuropsychological testing and evaluate mechanisms by determining the extent to which HIV DNA contributes to monocyte activation in peripheral blood and glial activation by MR spectroscopy and by CSF markers of immune activation while ensuring that the primary effects of HIV DNA are not due to increased HIV RNA in CSF.

Public Health Relevance

This proposal will study whether high levels of HIV infected monocytes (a type of cell in the bloodstream) that persist in HIV-infected individuals who receive good antiretroviral therapy against HIV explain why dementia does not completely resolve following such therapy. Understanding why this happens will allow us to find better ways to prevent or treat this devastating complication of HIV.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS061696-05
Application #
8304306
Study Section
NeuroAIDS and other End-Organ Diseases Study Section (NAED)
Program Officer
Wong, May
Project Start
2008-08-15
Project End
2014-07-31
Budget Start
2012-08-01
Budget End
2014-07-31
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$616,298
Indirect Cost
$115,860
Name
University of California San Francisco
Department
Neurology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
094878337
City
San Francisco
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94143
Krebs, Shelly J; Slike, Bonnie M; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri et al. (2016) Sex differences in soluble markers vary before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in chronically HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 30:1533-42
Sailasuta, Napapon; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lerdlum, Sukalaya et al. (2016) Neuronal-Glia Markers by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in HIV Before and After Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 71:24-30
Kore, Idil; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor et al. (2015) Neuropsychological Impairment in Acute HIV and the Effect of Immediate Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70:393-9
Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; D'Antoni, Michelle L; Ananworanich, Jintanat et al. (2015) Loss of CCR2 expressing non-classical monocytes are associated with cognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected Thais. J Neuroimmunol 288:25-33
Peluso, Michael J; Valcour, Victor; Ananworanich, Jintanat et al. (2015) Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Signs of Neuronal Injury Before and After Immediate Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection. J Infect Dis 212:1759-67
Heaps, Jodi M; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Paul, Robert et al. (2015) Association between brain volumes and HAND in cART-naïve HIV+ individuals from Thailand. J Neurovirol 21:105-12
Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Valcour, Victor G; Lerdlum, Sukalaya et al. (2014) HIV DNA in CD14+ reservoirs is associated with regional brain atrophy in patients naive to combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 28:1619-24
Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat et al. (2014) Practice effect and normative data of an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery among healthy Thais. J Med Assoc Thai 97 Suppl 2:S222-33
Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri et al. (2013) Trail Making Test A improves performance characteristics of the International HIV Dementia Scale to identify symptomatic HAND. J Neurovirol 19:137-43
Valcour, Victor G; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Agsalda, Melissa et al. (2013) HIV DNA reservoir increases risk for cognitive disorders in cART-naïve patients. PLoS One 8:e70164

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