Our ability to adapt to systematic perturbations makes it possible to maintain a lifetime of calibrated movements. Our focus here is on the neural basis of this motor memory. The current view is that adaptation depends critically on the cerebellum. However, over the last two years we, and others, have made a series of observations that challenge this view of adaptation. Here we suggest a different view of the problem of motor adaptation based on the core hypothesis that the cerebellum is embedded in a larger network that includes motor cortical areas, and that more than one mechanism is involved in forming a motor memory. Specifically, we suggest that motor memory is a result of interaction of distinct components: one component associates motor commands with sensory consequences, resulting in a forward model;one component searches the motor space for output that can produce a rewarding outcome, resulting in exploration;a third component relies on repetition to associate the sensory feedback with the motor commands, resulting in a feedback- dependent controller.
In Aim 1, we will test that idea that the function of M1 during adaptation is to encode a component of motor memory that depends on reinforced repetition of motor commands.
In Aim 2, we will test the hypothesis that damage to the cerebellum affects only one component of motor memory, the ability to form memories that depend on sensory prediction errors (forward models), but spares the ability to learn from repetition of motor commands. Our projects are clinically important because if we are right in that there are multiple neural pathways to formation of motor memory, then damage to one component may benefit from rehabilitation procedures that focus on remaining healthy neural structures. Our projects are important from a basic science standpoint because: (1) our experiments can connect the cerebellar-centric field of adaptation which has focused on error-dependent learning, with cerebral cortex-centric field of motor learning which has focused on repetition-dependent processes;(2) our experiments have the power to explain what is being 'prepared'by the brain during the preparatory period before movement onset;and finally (3) our experiments have the potential to actually test computational ideas that are very much in fashion in the field of optima control, and ask whether they have any relevance to the neural basis of motor control.

Public Health Relevance

Cerebellar damage causes poor movement control and an inability to learn to improve movement. We will work to understand whether use of novel training schedules can improve motor learning. If so, we will ask whether this is because of involvement of other brain areas like the motor cortex. These approaches could be translated into novel and effective rehabilitation strategies.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS078311-03
Application #
8683267
Study Section
Motor Function, Speech and Rehabilitation Study Section (MFSR)
Program Officer
Chen, Daofen
Project Start
2012-09-15
Project End
2017-05-31
Budget Start
2014-06-01
Budget End
2015-05-31
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$369,945
Indirect Cost
$133,565
Name
Johns Hopkins University
Department
Neurosciences
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
001910777
City
Baltimore
State
MD
Country
United States
Zip Code
21218
Albert, Scott T; Shadmehr, Reza (2016) The Neural Feedback Response to Error As a Teaching Signal for the Motor Learning System. J Neurosci 36:4832-45
Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza (2015) Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability. J Neurosci 35:4015-24
Hanajima, Ritsuko; Shadmehr, Reza; Ohminami, Shinya et al. (2015) Modulation of error-sensitivity during a prism adaptation task in people with cerebellar degeneration. J Neurophysiol 114:2460-71
Herzfeld, David J; Kojima, Yoshiko; Soetedjo, Robijanto et al. (2015) Encoding of action by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Nature 526:439-42
Marko, Mollie K; Crocetti, Deana; Hulst, Thomas et al. (2015) Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism. Brain 138:784-97
Salimpour, Yousef; Mari, Zoltan K; Shadmehr, Reza (2015) Altering Effort Costs in Parkinson's Disease with Noninvasive Cortical Stimulation. J Neurosci 35:12287-302
Pekny, Sarah E; Shadmehr, Reza (2015) Optimizing effort: increased efficiency of motor memory with time away from practice. J Neurophysiol 113:445-54
Vaswani, Pavan A; Shmuelof, Lior; Haith, Adrian M et al. (2015) Persistent residual errors in motor adaptation tasks: reversion to baseline and exploratory escape. J Neurosci 35:6969-77
Herzfeld, David J; Vaswani, Pavan A; Marko, Mollie K et al. (2014) A memory of errors in sensorimotor learning. Science 345:1349-53
Herzfeld, David J; Shadmehr, Reza (2014) Motor variability is not noise, but grist for the learning mill. Nat Neurosci 17:149-50

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