Emerging and re-emerging infections are now widely acknowledged to be an urgent and growing global threat to human health. Nowhere is this more important than in urban slums, where humans are typically crowded, often inherently vulnerable, and live in close proximity with animal and environmental reservoirs of infection. Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease caused by a spirochetal agent transmitted by rats, has emerged as an important health problem as slum settlements have expanded rapidly worldwide. In countries such as Brazil, large epidemics occur each year in slum communities during seasonal periods of heavy rainfall. These outbreaks are associated with life-threatening manifestations such as pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS), for which case fatality is >50%. The burden of leptospirosiswili continue to increase as the world's slum population doubles to two billion by 2025. We therefore need to address critical gaps in our understanding of the transmission dynamics of leptospirosis such that novel and informed strategies for prevention can be identified and effectively implemented in slum communities.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
Fogarty International Center (FIC)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
1R01TW009504-01
Application #
8452345
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-IDM-U (55))
Program Officer
Jessup, Christine
Project Start
2012-09-01
Project End
2017-07-31
Budget Start
2012-09-01
Budget End
2013-07-31
Support Year
1
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$400,000
Indirect Cost
$94,460
Name
Yale University
Department
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
043207562
City
New Haven
State
CT
Country
United States
Zip Code
06520
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Hagan, José E; Moraga, Paula; Costa, Federico et al. (2016) Spatiotemporal Determinants of Urban Leptospirosis Transmission: Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Slum Residents in Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004275
Jones, Forrest K; Ko, Albert I; Becha, Chris et al. (2016) Increased Rotavirus Prevalence in Diarrheal Outbreak Precipitated by Localized Flooding, Solomon Islands, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 22:875-9
DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L et al. (2016) Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Epidemiol Infect 144:2420-9
Oliveira, Carlos R; Costa, Gisela S R; Paploski, Igor A D et al. (2016) Influenza-like illness in an urban community of Salvador, Brazil: incidence, seasonality and risk factors. BMC Infect Dis 16:125

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