Worldwide, approximately 33.3 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 displays extraordinary genetic variations and the predominant subtype, clade B, is found in North America, Canada, Brazil, Western Europe and Australia whereas clade C is found specifically in Africa, Latin America, China, India and Nepal. Of these, clades B and C represent a large majority (>86%) of circulating HIV-1 variants and more than 56 % of the infection is with clade C. AIDS is often accompanied by immune and neuropathological abnormalities. Dopamine receptors (DRD) and transporter (DAT) are known to play a significant role in immuno-neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Previous studies suggest that HIV-1 clade variations differentially induce the neuro-immunopathogenic mechanisms. We hypothesize that clade B and C infection exert differential effects on peripheral blood derived monocytes and central nerves system (CNS) cells leading to differential immuno-neuropathogenic effects and the mechanisms may be mediated by dysregulation of Ca2? dependent protein (CaMKs) kinases signaling pathways. Accordingly we will study (Aim #1) the effects of clade B and C virus infections on gene expression and protein modification of dopamine receptor-2 (DRD-2), dopamine transporter (DAT), rate limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and level of metabolite homovalinic acid (HVA) by monocytes and primary human CNS cells (astrocytes, neurons, microglial cells), and whether (Aim #2) the mechanism of differential dysregulation of DRD-2 and DAT is mediated by modulation of Ca2?dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and cAMP response of element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathways.
The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of HIV subtypes influencing neuronal injury and which may help to develop therapeutic strategies for HIV-associated dementia and neurocognitive disorder.
|Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Kanthikeel, Sudhessh Pilakka et al. (2014) Immunoneuropathogenesis of HIV-1 clades B and C: role of redox expression and thiol modification. Free Radic Biol Med 69:136-44|