The goal of the signal transduction field is to identify and characterize the biochemical and molecular basis of communication from one molecule to another as part of a signaling pathway. Over the last 30 years, this knowledge has provided a vastly improved understanding of how transfer of this information regulates a variety of cellular processes associated with normal growth and development. Unfortunately, these pathways are also the targets of inappropriate regulation through an assortment of mechanisms, and when this occurs a variety of human developmental disorders and diseases can arise. The structural modification of proteins by phosphorylation is now well established to be a major mechanism of modulating signaling processes. There are over 500 protein kinases in the human genome with the potential to regulate protein phosphorylation, but relatively few are well characterized. Of those that are, many are now known to possess important functions in normal development and disease. Because of the central role these enzymes play in a variety of biological processes and in many human diseases, and because protein kinases are potential targets for therapeutic intervention, a tremendous effort has been made at determining the molecular basis for information transmission and the biological processes affected. The characterization of new kinases and their functions will likely reveal even more novel therapeutic targets. These are truly exciting times in the protein kinase and protein phosphorylation arena. Thus, it is critical that the exchange of information and ideas between the leading scientists in the field occur in order for this scientific discovery to proceed. Since its inception in 1983, the FASEB summer research conference on """"""""Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphorylation"""""""" (held biennially) has consistently been one of the preeminent meetings in the field of signal transduction, providing a premier venue for the communication of research findings from both academia and industry. The goal of the proposed conference is to continue this tradition of exciting and enthusiastic scientific exchange.